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Community-Based Corrections Generally. CBC Generally Offender Selection The State of Modern CBC. What Is CBC?. Intermediate Sanctions and CBC. Recall:. What are Intermediate Sanctions?. What are IS?. CBC Objectives. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . Community Protection.

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community based corrections generally

Community-Based Corrections Generally

CBC Generally

Offender Selection

The State of Modern CBC

cbc objectives
CBC Objectives
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
community protection
Community Protection
  • Offender Selection Criteria

Restrictions (IS) and Level of Control

Rules and Rules Enforcement

rules and rules enforcement
Rules and Rules Enforcement
  • Rules and rules enforcement tend to deter criminal activity and identify, before crime, persons at risk for criminality.
fairness and justice aka proportionality
Fairness and Justice AKA: Proportionality
  • Punishment should fit the crime
  • Aggravating and mitigation circumstances
  • Apply the right amount of just deserts
Should an offender who works and obeys the law, but continues to have problems with drugs, be sent to prison?
rehabilitation and reintegration
Rehabilitation and Reintegration
  • Rebuilding community ties
    • Family, Job, Friends, Education

Why are these things important?

  • Rehabilitation is based on the premise that crime and delinquency are:
practical implications
Practical Implications
  • Programs that avoid stigmatizing offenders and enable them to maintain ties to the larger community could be expected to encourage responsible, law-abiding behavior.
  • Reintegration, to be effective, must be:
cost effectiveness
Cost Effectiveness
  • Prison: About $18,000 - $25,000 per year
  • Probation: About $1,400 per year
  • Effective TX: About $12,000 - $14,000 year
cost effectiveness cont d
Cost Effectiveness cont’d
  • 28,000 VA inmates X $22,000

= $616,000,000 per year

  • 40,000 P&P Cases X $1,400
  • = $ 56,000,000 per year
  • 7,000 Selected Inmate Cases X $14,000
  • = $ 98,000,000 per year
  • Savings: $155,554.000 - $98,000,000
  • = $57,554,000 per year PLUS Less Crime
cost effectiveness cont d23
Cost Effectiveness cont’d
  • TX pays for itself.
  • Fact:
  • Fact:
offender selection tools
Offender Selection Tools
  • Presentence Report
  • Risk and Needs Assessments
  • Sentencing Guidelines
history of sg in virginia
History of SG in Virginia
  • Historical widespread inequities
  • Voluntary sentencing guidelines
  • 75% compliance rate by judges
truth in sentencing
Truth In Sentencing
  • 1980-1992 Number f federal prisoners increased 46% to 75%
  • Result: 60% increase in corrections spending
important concepts
Important Concepts
  • Collective Incapacitation:
  • Selective Incapacitation:
important concepts32
Important Concepts
  • Determinate Sentencing:

Indeterminate Sentencing


get tough on crime
Get Tough On Crime
  • Result of War On Drugs
    • National crackdown on drug use
    • Massive increases in law enforcement and prosecutions
get tough on crime36
Get Tough On Crime
  • Effect
    • Increase in drug users in prison
    • Limited prison space for violent and property offenders
    • Huge increases in correctional spending
    • DOC became largest agency in many states
some bright spots
Some Bright Spots
  • Greater focus on violent offenders
  • Law authorized federal mandatory minimum for minor drug offenders
  • Federal money to states for prisons tied to
    • Evidence of balanced approach
      • Rehabilitation, TX, Education
      • Diversion, Drug Courts, Post Release Assistance
less bright spots
Less Bright Spots
  • Limited federal court authority to remedy prison overcrowding
  • Permitted double bunking of maximum security inmates
  • Most states maximized incarceration
    • Proliferation of sentencing enhancements for all
  • Parole abolition
sentencing enhancements
Sentencing Enhancements
  • Three strikes and you’re out
    • For All
  • Truth in sentencing (Serve 85% of time)
    • For All
  • Sentencing Guideline enhancements
prison admissions
Prison Admissions
  • Implication?
collective incapacitation criticisms
Collective Incapacitation Criticisms
  • If collective incapacitation were effective, crime reduction would have been greater.
    • Serious offenders were already incarcerated
    • Longer sentences incapacitate offenders after criminal career ended or greatly diminished
    • Drug offenders leave prison with broader criminal expertise
    • Middle class assumption prison is equal deterrent to all groups
cost and consequences of incarceration policy
Cost and Consequences of Incarceration Policy
  • Cost
    • Economic, Social, Educational, Health and Public Safety
  • Consequences If Trend Continues
    • Raise taxes or reduce Funding in almost all other areas
international perspective
International Perspective
  • US places disproportionate emphasis on physical punishment in CCJ policy.
  • US reliance on collective incapacitation is not based on demonstrated success.
what are the alternatives
What Are The Alternatives?
  • Reintroduce Indeterminacy In Sentencing
  • Focus On Alternatives To Incarceration
  • Remove Lesser Offenders From Prison
    • Especially Drug Offenders
solution back to cbc
Solution: Back To CBC
  • CBC can provide protection
    • Rehabilitation and enforcing restrictions costs $
  • Most offenders respond to the right program match
  • CBC is the best cost effective alternative
  • Public safety concerns dominate correctional planning.
  • Resolution of offender problems and needs may be the best long-term solution to public safety problems and crime prevention.