Higher Education Reform in Albania. Ministry of Education and Science, Arjan Shahini. Outline. Public Management: Central Authorities Priorities (Gov. National Strategy for Higher Education 2008-13) Expansion: Example Private Education (approach + c urrent state).
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Higher Education Reform in Albania Ministry of Education and Science, Arjan Shahini
Outline • Public Management: Central Authorities • Priorities (Gov. National Strategy for Higher Education 2008-13) • Expansion: Example Private Education (approach + current state)
Central Authorities • Public management and governance of higher education Central Authorities: • Government / MoES • Accred. Council • Council of Higher Education and Research • National Examination Center + Immatriculation • Parliament • Committee on Education and Means of Public Information • the Committee on Work, Social Issues and Health
Objectives of the strategy • Develop the societyand promote democraticstandards. • Develop economicallyandequallythe country through education of a qualified work force. • Fulfill the development aspirations of the young generations. • Develop and consolidate a wide and adequate knowledge base for the benefit of the country.
Strategic priorities • Expand the system (increase supply) meet the needs of the country and create higher education opportunities for all . • Ensure diversity in education offers in line with the requirements of the future development of the country. • Improve the quality of teaching and learning continuous training of human resources and fostering aculture of quality. • Improve governance mechanisms grant HEIs adequate autonomy conditional upon the achievement of quality management, accountability and transparency. • Develop methods, schemes and levels of financing student’s based (need and merit – SL) for teaching and competitive for research institutions (SDF).
Approach: Reform & Innovation Bottom-Up
Strategy Evaluation: Problems • Increase in environment’s complexity • Resistance to change • Difficulty predicting future • Increasing number of variables • Rate of obsolescence of plans • National and global events • Decreasing time span for planning certainty • Lack of capacities for the implementation
II. Expansion: Instruments • Liberalization of the education market: allow private providers (profit and non-profit). • Increase capacities (“consolidation and growth of the capacities of the existing institutions”) • Concentrated only in some fields of study (economic priority sectors: tourism, agricultural, food industry). • Gradual increase of the number of students. • Support regional universities
II. Expansion: e.g private education (a) • Approach: • Mix: Laissez –faire with market competition* • No funding; tax incentives for students • Private sector free to set tuition fees • Limited regulation, but regular auditing • No special laws • state introduces market elements in the higher education market • creates open market structure • state encourage private-public competition * Zumeta W. (1997) State Policy and private Higher Education: Past, Present and Future. In: J. Smart (ed) Higher Education Handbook of Theory and Research. Volume XII. New York: Agathon Press: 43-106
II. Expansion – Private Education (b) • Policies • Introduction of market elements (marketization) in the education system • Permissive policy for private providers to enter the market (licensure procedure) • Substitute funds and / public funding (in the future!) • Results • Increase in private education institutions (46 by 2012) • Profilization of higher education institutions (study programs, professional colleges). • Increase in enrollment in private education (23 500 by 2011). • Consequences • Few elite HEIs • Public universities are more selective than private (due to state matura exam) • Private might go bankrupt or merge • Private sector is left to itself.
II. Expansion: Improve quality • Accreditation & quality assurance (new quality standards & benchmarks) • Inform the students about the quality of the supply (Ranking) • Encourage the establishment of professional colleges (less restrictive licensing procedure) • Prepare students of secondary level for the university (2+2 obligatory state examination) • Obligatory certificate in English for the master-level (law) • Internationalize the HEIs
Private Education II • Quality Assurance • Accreditation Agency • Accreditation Council • Ministry of Education and Science • State Standards of Evaluation and Accreditation • Yearly monitoring / inspection • Informing students about the quality: Ranking! • CHE • Methodology: Multidimensional • Results
I. Expansion: Improve quality • Accreditation & quality assurance (new quality standards & benchmarks) • Inform the students about the quality of the supply (Ranking) • Encourage the establishment of professional colleges (less restrictive licensing procedure) • Prepare students of secondary level for the university (2+2 obligatory state examination) • Obligatory certificate in English for the master-level (law) • Internationalize the HEIs
II. Curriculum Reform • Evaluate the implementation of Bologna Standards • Follow the Bologna Process: 3-cycle system; • Competencebased learning; • Flexiblelearning paths; • Recognition & mobility (internationalize curricula) • Adapt/restructure content, structure, teaching methods and materials; • Establish joint study programmes; • Establish links with the labourmarket (two year vocational schooling/college).
III. Governance • Increase the autonomy of universities • Modernise the capacity, management and governance of higher education institutions and at the Ministry. • Management of students’ services • Build strategic partnerships, international and domestic relations with the private und state actors etc. • Ensure the quality of education (QA) • Promote a quality assurance culture • Increase accountability (toward government and the public) • Ensure equality and transparency in accessing the higher education
III. Governance: Accountability • Appointment (government or board) • Representation (internal + external) • Financial accountability (budget) • Differentiated functions between academics and executives. • Performance – (reporting + monitoring + ranking + accreditation) • Responsiveness toward market needs
IV. Research and Development: Strategy and Instruments • Document: National Strategy of Science, Technology and Innovation, 2009 • Integration of the research institutes in the higher education system • Innovation (applied research) • Establishment of interdisciplinary centers (Technology Transfer Centers and Agencies) • Assist in the development of the local community and businesses • Set up networks of cooperation with the most important industries • Share costs with the private sector and attract funds from international research programs. • Raise public awareness • Achieve excellence in the priority areas of development (agro-food and tourism)