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Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund. Chapter 10: Survey Research: Basic Communication Methods. Surveys. Surveys as a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning. Communicating with Respondents. Personal interviews Door-to-door Shopping mall intercepts

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business research methods william g zikmund

Business Research MethodsWilliam G. Zikmund

Chapter 10:

Survey Research: Basic Communication Methods

surveys
Surveys
  • Surveys as a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning
communicating with respondents
Communicating with Respondents
  • Personal interviews
      • Door-to-door
      • Shopping mall intercepts
  • Telephone interviews
  • Self-administered questionnaires
good afternoon my name is i am with survey research company we are conducting a survey on
Good Afternoon, my name is

_________. I am with _________

survey research company. We are conducting a survey on_________

door to door personal interview
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Speed of data collection
    • Moderate to fast
  • Geographical flexibility
    • Limited to moderate
  • Respondent cooperation
    • Excellent
  • Versatility of questioning
    • Quite versatile
door to door personal interview7
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Questionnaire length
    • Long
  • Item nonresponse
    • Low
  • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
    • Lowest
door to door personal interview8
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Degree of interviewer influence of answer
    • High
  • Supervision of interviewers
    • Moderate
  • Anonymity of respondent
    • Low
door to door personal interview9
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
    • Difficult
  • Cost
    • Highest
  • Special features
    • Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible
mall intercept personal interview
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Speed of data collection
    • Fast
  • Geographical flexibility
    • Confined, urban bias
  • Respondent cooperation
    • Moderate to low
    • Versatility of questioning
      • Extremely versatile
mall intercept personal interview11
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Speed of Data Collection
    • Fast
  • Geographical Flexibility
    • Confined, urban bias
  • Respondent Cooperation
    • Moderate to low
    • Versatility of Questioning
    • Extremely versatile
mall intercept personal interview12
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Questionnaire length
    • Moderate to long
  • Item nonresponse
    • Medium
  • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
    • Lowest
mall intercept personal interview13
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Degree of interviewer influence of answers
    • Highest
  • Supervision of interviewers
    • Moderate to high
  • Anonymity of respondent
    • Low
mall intercept personal interview14
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
    • Difficult
  • Cost
    • Moderate to high
  • Special features
    • Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible
telephone surveys16
Telephone Surveys
  • Speed of Data Collection
    • Very fast
  • Geographical Flexibility
    • High
  • Respondent Cooperation
    • Good
  • Versatility of Questioning
    • Moderate
telephone surveys17
Telephone Surveys
  • Questionnaire Length
    • Moderate
  • Item Nonresponse
    • Medium
  • Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding
    • Average
  • Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer
    • Moderate
telephone surveys18
Telephone Surveys
  • Supervision of interviewers
    • High, especially with central location WATS interviewing
  • Anonymity of respondent
    • Moderate
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
    • Easy
telephone surveys19
Telephone Surveys
  • Cost
    • Low to moderate
  • Special features
    • Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology
telephone surveys20
Telephone Surveys
  • Central location interviewing
  • Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
  • Computerized voice-activated interviews
most unlisted markets
Most Unlisted Markets
  • Sacramento, CA
  • Oakland, CA
  • Fresno, CA
  • Los Angles/Long Beach, CA
mail surveys25
Mail Surveys
  • Speed of data collection
    • Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow
  • Geographical flexibility
    • High
  • Respondent cooperation
    • Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate
mail surveys26
Mail Surveys
  • Versatility of questioning
    • Highly standardized format
  • Questionnaire length
    • Varies depending on incentive
  • Item nonresponse
    • High
mail surveys27
Mail Surveys
  • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
    • Highest--no interviewer present for clarification
  • Degree of interviewer influence of answer
    • None--interviewer absent
  • Supervision of interviewers
    • Not applicable
mail surveys28
Mail Surveys
  • Anonymity of respondent
    • High
  • Ease of call back or follow-up
    • Easy, but takes time
  • Cost
    • Lowest
how to increase response rates for mail surveys
How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys
  • Write a “sales oriented” cover letter
  • Money helps
  • - As a token of appreciation
  • - For a charity
  • Stimulate respondents’ interest with interesting questions
  • Follow Up
  • - Keying questionnaires with codes
  • Advanced notification
  • Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious institution
increasing response rates
Increasing Response Rates
  • Effective cover letter
  • Money helps
  • Interesting questions
  • Follow-ups
  • Advanced notification
  • Survey sponsorship
  • Keying questionnaires
e mail questionnaire surveys
E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
  • Speed of data collection
    • Instantaneous
  • Geographic flexibility
    • worldwide
  • Cheaper distribution and processing costs
e mail questionnaire surveys32
E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
  • Flexible, but
    • Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents’ computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout
  • E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping” can possibly occur
  • Respondent cooperation
    • Varies depending if e-mail is seen as “spam”
internet surveys
Internet Surveys
  • A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site.
  • Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer.
internet surveys35
Internet Surveys
  • Speed of data collection
    • Instantaneous
  • Cost effective
  • Geographic flexibility
    • worldwide
  • Visual and interactive
internet surveys36
Internet Surveys
  • Respondent cooperation
    • Varies depending on web site
    • Varies depending on type of sample
    • When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary survey cooperation is low.
    • Self-selection problems in web site visitation surveys - participants tend to be more deeply involved than the average person.
internet surveys37
Internet Surveys
  • Versatility of questioning
    • Extremely versatile
  • Questionnaire length
    • Individualized base on respondent answers
    • Longer questionnaires with panel samples
  • Item nonresponse
    • Software can assure none
internet surveys38
Internet Surveys
  • Representative samples
  • The quality of internet samples may vary substantially.
  • A sample of those who visit a web page and voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have self-selection error.
internet surveys39
Internet Surveys
  • 1) not all individuals in the general public have internet access
  • 2) many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the internet
  • 3) many respondents computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated.
internet surveys40
Internet Surveys
  • Possibility for respondent misunderstanding
    • High
  • Interviewer influence of answers
    • None
  • Supervision of interviewers not required
internet surveys41
Internet Surveys
  • Anonymity of Respondent
    • Respondent can be anonymous or known
  • Ease of Callback or Follow-up
    • difficult unless e-mail address is known
  • Special Features
    • allows graphics and streaming media
welcome screen
Welcome Screen
  • Welcome Screen like a cover letter
  • It contains the name of the research company and how to contact the organization if there is a problem or concern.
  • "If you have any concerns or questions about this survey, or if you experience any technical difficulties, please contact (NAME OF RESEARCH ORGANIZATION).
welcome screen should ask for password and give instructions
Welcome Screen should ask for password and give instructions
  • Please enter your personal password from your invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin the survey or simply click on the right arrow at the bottom of the page to begin the survey (after you have read the remaining instructions):
  • During the survey, please do not use your browser's FORWARD and BACK buttons.
  • Use the arrows on the lower right to move backward and forward through the survey.
selected questions to determine the appropriate technique
Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique
  • Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary?
  • Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated?
  • Will cooperation be easily attained?
selected questions to determine the appropriate technique46
Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique
  • How quickly is the information needed?
  • Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire?
  • How large is the budget?
pretesting
Pretesting
  • A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design