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Towards the quality of multilingual Education in Friesland: development of common standards. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education Frysk filologekongres 15 juny 2012 . 100 Jahre (west-) Friesisch im Unterricht. 1907 Als AG nach der Schule

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towards the quality of multilingual education in friesland development of common standards

Towards the quality of multilingualEducation in Friesland: development of common standards

Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education

Fryskfilologekongres 15 juny 2012

100 jahre west friesisch im unterricht
100 Jahre (west-)FriesischimUnterricht
  • 1907 Als AG nach der Schule
  • 1937 FakultativesFach
  • 1955 Als Unterrichtsspracheerlaubt
  • 1980 Pflichtfach in Grundschulen (4-12)
  • 1993 PflichtfachimSekundarunterricht
  • 1989 Verein der FriesischenundbilingualenKindergärten (2,5 – 4 Jahre)
overview
Overview
  • General introduction
  • Pupils / students
  • Teachers’ qualities
  • Schools’ Language Policies
  • Teacher Training
  • Conclusions
friesisch im unterricht 1
Friesisch im Unterricht (1)
  • 300 Kindergärten (2,5 – 4 Jahre): 110 bilingualeoderFriesisch-ImmersionKindergärten
  • 500 Grundschulen (4 – 12 Jahr):- alle SchulenFriesisch als Pflichtfach- 100 Schulen: FachundUnterrichts- sprache (halbes Tag / einen Tag)- 45 DreisprachigeSchulenmitFriesisch, NiederländischundEnglisch
slide5

Trilingual education in Fryslân

  • Model: Frisian, Dutch and English as subject & medium of instruction- Grade 1-6: 50 % Frisian, 50 % Dutch- Grade 7-8: 40 % Frisian, 40 % Dutch, 20% English
  • Early start English
  • Conscious split of languageusage: person / time / themes
trilingual education in frysl n
Trilingual education in Fryslân
  • Developments:2012 > 50 primary schools (= 10%)
  • Continuitytosecondaryeducation:2012: 3 pilot schools with the concept of multilingualclil (= medium of instruction)
  • Teacher training forprimary:2011: Trilingualstream2011: Minor (30 ECTS)
friesisch im unterricht 2
Friesisch im Unterricht (2)
  • Sekundarunterricht (12-17/18 Jahre):- Pflichtfach in erste(n) Klasse(n) – 1 Stunde pro Woche- WahlfachfürAbitur- DreiSchulenmitdreisprachigemUnterricht
  • BeruflichesUnterricht (16-19 Jahr):- nureinige Modulen / Zusatzfach
  • Afûk-Abendklassen / www.edufrysk.nl
multilingual secondary education
MultilingualSecondaryEducation
  • MainstreamSecondaryeducation: - Dutch dominant- English andFrisian as a subject only- limiteduse of Frisian as medium in oraluseonly
  • Experiments in progress:
  • 3 TTO-schools: Dutch and English medium andFrisian as a subject only
  • 3 ME-schools: Dutch, English andFrisianboth as a subject and a medium

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

goals of bilingual education
Goals of bilingualeducation
  • Transitionalbilingualism, aiming at > bettercommand of nationallanguage;
  • Sustainable bi- / multilingualeducation > full bilingualism, biliteracy(in mother tongue andnationallanguage)

Longstanding reality of minority & migrant languages:

  • Neglectof (real) mother tongue = submersion > subtractivebilingualism
common european standards
Common European Standards
  • Core goals in languagecommand
  • Time investment
  • Teaching OF and teaching IN
  • Continuity of teaching & learning
  • Teaching materials
  • Teacher training andqualification
pupils students
Pupils / students
  • Goals of education:languagecommand in the fields oflistening, reading, speaking, writing
  • Results of teaching andlearning[= “learopbringsten”] (tobe) testedby common standards
common european framework of reference
Common European Framework of Reference
  • GRID withcan do-statements: 5 fieldsof languagecommand: listening, reading, speaking, conversation, writing6 levels of languagecommand: (A1 – A2 – B1 - B2 – C1 – C2)
  • Developedforforeignlanguagelearning
  • Applicablefor second languagelearningandmother tongue education
synergy of multilingual education
Synergy of multilingual education?

Problem 1: in theory, pupils are expectedtoacquire more languagessimultaneously in context of the CUP-model / ice mountain (Cummins), but in school practice the watershed is persistent.Problem 2: comparability of different target languageswithregardto levels of commandand the measurement.

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en Opvoeding

ice berg of jim cummin
Ice berg of JimCummin

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en opvoeding

comparison of cefr and anglia levels
Comparison of CEFR andAnglia levels

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en opvoeding

synergy of me and the comparable measurement of target languages
Synergyof ME and the comparablemeasurement of target languages
  • Towhatextentcan different testing systems show validatedresultsconcernigreference levels in the target languages?
  • Towhatextentcan the common practice in didacticsbeappliedtowardsintegratedlanguagelearning?

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en opvoeding

comparability of tests
Comparability of tests
  • Dutch: student monitoring system + Cito-test at end of primary school
  • English: Anglia-tests (10 levels)
  • Frisian: basisskoalle-eksamenDevelopment of Frisia-test (4 levels)Language Portfolio (student / teacher)
teacher s qualities
Teacher’squalities
  • Language command (B2 > C2)
  • Meta-linguistic awareness
  • Didacticcommand: - language input;- clil: content & languageintegrated- transfer / translanguaging;- activatingdidactic approach
secondary trilingual education
Secondarytrilingualeducation
  • Pilot at three schools:Frisian medium: history / (biology) / physical training / culturalaffairsEnglish medium: science / geography / economy
  • Towards “TTO-plus” ?Dutch: 40% - English 30% - Frisian 30%
secondary trilingual education1
Secondarytrilingualeducation
  • Mainchallenges:
  • Materials
  • Language command of subject teachers
  • Didacticintegration of languagesand subjects
  • Terminology
example science terminology
Example: scienceterminology
  • Modern Mathematics 1B (Havo/Vwo):Acute angleObtuseanglePerpendicularQuadrilateralVertex / VerticesIsoscelesTriangle
teachers peer teaching
Teachers’ (peer-)teaching
  • Cooperation of languageand subject towards CLIL: subject terminologies
  • Glossaries / personal idiom file (pif)
  • Common schooling (“Fortbildung”) towards CLIL skills and team building
example taaldoarp frysk
Example: TaaldoarpFrysk

Opdracht: Fytseferhier

Do wolst in fyts hiere foar trije dagen. De fyts kostet fiif euro deis. Do moatst by it opheljen fan de fyts kontant betelje. Do krigest in bewyske fan beteljen; dat bontsje moatst goed bewarje. De fytseferhierder freget oft jim de foarskriften foar it brûken fan de hierfytsen wol witte. Freegje de ferhierder wat jim dwaan moatte by in lekke bân en as jim ûnderweis tinke, dat jim net op ‘e tiid weromkomme kinne.

  • Kaaiwurden: Eigner = eigenaar
  • Bûnte jûn = bonte avond
  • Foarsjennings = voorzieningen
  • Hokker = welke
  • Húske & brûs = wc & douche

Wurdfjild:

1. Pakjedrager = bagagedrager 2. Betelje = betalen 3. Hierfyts = huurfiets 4. Bewarje = bewaren5. Fytse = fietsen6. Werom wêze = Terug zijn7. Strân = strand8. Bewyske = bonnetje9. Ophelje = ophalen10.Bânplakkersguod = doosje met benodigdheden om banden te plakken

school language p olicies
School Language Policies
  • Clear goals andContinuity
  • Integration (“buidlingbridgesbetween”) of subjects & languages
  • Well-thought model aiming at (Fishman): “multilingual / multi-literate”
  • Investment in time, materials, schoolingandparents’ & students’ support
school class room policies
School & class room policies
  • Teamwork of teachers of subjects and medium of instruction > integral approach
  • Common descriptors of languagecommand in the target languages > CEFR
  • Comparabletestingmethods > student monitoring system
  • Learning strategies of pupilsbased on translanguagingandlanguageuse

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

lehrer aus bildung
Lehrer- aus- bildung
  • AusbildungzumehrsprachigemUnterrichten an Hochschulen / Universitäten
friesisch in lehrerausbildung
Friesisch in Lehrerausbildung
  • LehrerausbildungfürPrimarunterricht (B):- ZusatzfachmitZertifikat (etwa 8 ECTS)- DreisprachigeAbteilungmitEnglisch & Friesisch als Fach & Unterrichtssprache- Minor Zweisprachigkeit (30 ECTS)
  • LehrerausbildungfürSekundarunterricht:(B): Dreijahrigerpart-time Studie (M): Einjahriger Studie (60 ECTS)
trilingual stream at pabo
Trilingualstream at PABO
  • Common stream of NHL & Stenden
  • Extra languagelessons of Frisianand English
  • Frisianand English as medium
  • Minor Multilingualism (30 ECTS)
  • Internship at trilingual schools
teacher training for multilingual classroom
Teacher Training forMultilingual Classroom
  • Project grantedby ECML / CoE (Graz) (2012-2015)
  • Partners in Catalunya, Ireland, Wales
  • Guide of common practices & standards
  • Preparing joint European Master on Multilingualism & Education
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Holistic view & approach towardsanIntegratedLanguage School:primary – secondary – teacher training
  • Concept fits well toEU- & CoE-policy  Mother tongue + 2 CLIL & ImmersionLinguisticDiversityinclusive:minorityand migrant languages

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma