pollution and the wetlands
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POLLUTION AND THE WETLANDS. Introduction.

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introduction
Introduction

Seventeen percent of North Carolina’s 5.7 million acres are wetlands. Ninety-five percent of North Carolina’s wetlands are found in the coastal plains. A wetland is part of a watershed (geographic are that drains to a single body of water) or a drainage basin. They are covered by shallow water and have soils waterlogged to the surface. Over time the wetlands have been drained and transformed into industrial facilities, as well as, a use for waste disposal. The wetlands are effected by the biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, and the hydrosphere.

problem
Problem
  • What is polluting the Great Dismal Swamp?
invasive species
Invasive Species

Asterionella formosa

  • Erosion causes increases in the amount of inorganic sediment in the water, inviting foreign species of sponge and diatom that need less light to take over water habitats.
invasive species fish and animals
Invasive Species: Fish and Animals
  • Invasive fish, such as the Northern Snakehead, destroy underwater ecosystems.
  • Animals, such as pets that can no longer be cared for, can become invasive if enough are released.
invasive species plant world
Invasive Species: Plant World
  • Plant species such as Purple Loosestrife, Mile-a-Minute, and Tree-of-Heaven displace and destroy native foliage.
  • Even native plants can become invasive. Good examples are sweet gums and maples.
  • Water plants such as water hyacinth spread quickly and reduce water quality.
pollution
Pollution
  • Swamps act as sinkholes, grabbing any contaminants in water and sucking them in.
  • Pollution from sewage, dump sites, spills, and storage areas are problems.
what is soil erosion
What is Soil Erosion?

* movement of soil particles by

wind, gravity, or water

soil erosion cont
Soil Erosion (cont.)
  • Wind & Water
  • Fertilizers & Sediments
  • Algae Production
cause effect relationships
Cause/Effect Relationships
  • Precipitation
  • Erosion
  • Runoff
fertilizers
Fertilizers

Organic Fertilizers

Mixed Fertilizers

Chemical Fertilizers

purpose of wetlands
Purpose of Wetlands

Protection

Soil

the atmosphere
THE ATMOSPHERE
  • What is the Atmosphere made of?
recycling of atmospheric materials
Recycling of Atmospheric Materials
  • The amount of a given substance leaving the atmosphere = the amount of the same substance entering the atmosphere over the same period of time
atmosphere to other spheres
Atmosphere to other spheres
  • Biosphere Atmosphere
  • Atmosphere Biosphere
  • Atmosphere Lithosphere
air pollutants
Air Pollutant

Major Sources

Effects

Carbon Monoxide

Automobile Exhaust

Reduces delivery of oxygen to body tissues; impairs vision reflexes

Nitrogen Dioxide

Burning of fossil fuels in power plants & automobiles

Irritates lungs & contributes to acid rain and smog

Sulfur Dioxide

Burning of fossil fuels in power plants, oil refineries, paper mills, volcanoes

Irritates respiratory system contributing to acid rain

Particulate Matter

(dust, smoke, soot, ash)

Factories, power plants, oil refineries, paper mills, volcanoes

Contributes to respiratory problems linked to cancers

Lead

Smelters, Battery Plants

Damages nervous & digestive systems

Ozone

Reactions of nitrogen oxides & hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight

Reduces lungs functions & causes inflammation

Air Pollutants
acid rain
Acid Rain
  • How does Acid Rain form?
    • Forms when pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water vapor in the air
  • The resulting acid precipitation can fall as rain or snow
acid rain cont
Acid Rain (Cont.)
  • Unlike normal rain, which has a pH of 6, Acid Rain has a pH of 5
    • It harms both plant and animal life
    • It also harms forest by stripping away vital nutrients from the soil.
the water cycle
THE WATER CYCLE
  • What is the Water Cycle?
  • What are the processes?
  • Where does the water go?
contaminated groundwater
Contaminated Groundwater

Groundwater contamination is any addition of undesirable substances to groundwater by human activities.

Contaminant sources in urban areas include gas stations, dry cleaners, garbage dumps, snow-disposal dumps, and industrial sites.

runoff
RUNOFF
  • Surface runoff is one of the causes of erosion of the earth's surface.
  • It is instead forced directly into streams or storm water runoff drains, where erosion and siltation can be major problems, even when flooding is not.
  • Increased runoff reduces groundwater recharge, thus lowering the water table and making droughts worse, especially for farmersand others who depend on water wells.
floodwater
Floodwater

Major storms, such as hurricanes, fill streets with flooded water.

This will contaminate the water, harming the plants and animals.

Humans depend on plants and animals for food.

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Our wetlands are affected by many forms of pollution. We need to find ways to prevent, or restrict this.
  • We need our wetlands to filter our waters, keep soil in place, and provide fish and game.
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Heavy fines on businesses and farms that pollute our wetlands, water, and air.
  • Plant vegetation in areas where erosion is a problem.
  • Ensure that boats coming in to port are cleaned of plant matter right away.
  • Prevent the sale of invasive plants/animals.
  • Use prescribed burns to destroy invasive plants and bring back native species.
reflections
Reflections
  • We learned that Earth System Science involves the interaction between the spheres and that pollution relates to every sphere group.
  • We learned that group work is important in Problem Based Learning, and that each person must do their share of the work. One person cannot do all the work.
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Asterionella Formosa." 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • Burdige, Ph.d., David J., Jennifer Slate, Ph.d., Jeremy Hicks (m.s. Student), Melissa Frazier (undergraduate Student), and Sean Donalty (undergraduate Student). "RECENT AND HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN LAKE DRUMMOND,." Department of Biology, Northeastern Illinois University. 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • Chowan River/Dismal Swamp." Oct. 2005. Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • Cutting Forests to Benefit Wildlife." U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 13 Aug. 2007 .
bibliography cont
Bibliography (cont.)
  • FIGHTING FIRE WITH FIRE: PRESCRIBED BURNS HELP PRESERVE DISMAL SWAMP." The Virginia Pilot. 8 May 1997. The Virginia Pilot. 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • Invasive Fish Species." Southeastern Outdoors. Southeastern Outdoors. 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • Kuser, John E., and George Zimmermann. "Restoring Atlantic White-Cedar Swamps: a Review of Techniques for Propagation and Establishment." Restoring Atlantic White-Cedar Swamps: a Review of Techniques for Propagation and Establishment. Summer 1995. 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • Reptiles and Amphibians." Smithsonian National Zoological Park. 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • Swearingen, Jil M., and Phil Pannill. "Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group.LEAST WANTED." Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group. 27 June 2006. Plant Conservation Alliance,. 13 Aug. 2007 .
  • "How Acid Rain is Formed." Education, Science, Technology. United Nations Educational,Scintific, and Cultural Organization. 17 Aug. 2007 .
bibliography continued
Bibliography (continued)

www.fws.gov/northeast/greatdismalswamp/History.htm

www.soil.ncsu.edu/assist/Wetlands/

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/earth/Watercycle.shtml

http://geoscape.nrcan.gc.ca/ottawa/groundwater_e.php

http://www.clw.csiro.au/cecr/images/groundwater.jpg

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/aquifers

http://En.Wikipidea.org/wiki/Chemical_fertil.

"Acid Rain and Forest Mass: Another Perspective." Terra Daily News About Planet Earth. 14 Oct. 2005. 17 Aug. 2007 .

bibliography cont1
Bibliography (cont.)
  • www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/library/documents/glossary/S.htm
  • www.knowledgebank.lrri.org/glossary/Glossary/O.htm
  • www.knowledgebank.lrri.org/glossary/Glossary/M.htm
  • www.botany.uwc.ac.za/Envfacts/facts/erosion.htm
  • www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/shoreline_erosion.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_runoff#_note-2
  • "Chowan Basinwide Water Quality." Chowan Basinwide Water Quality. 1997. NC Division of Water Quality. 16 Aug. 2007
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Class Instructors:
    • Mrs. Fowlkes
    • Dr. Botti
    • Dr. Pringle
    • Dr. Porter
    • Dr. Rossbach
    • Mrs. Noble
    • Ms. Stamper
    • All the members of our group
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