Methods and Materials for Culturally Linguistic Diverse students with Exceptionalities By Jose Urena, Brenda Goings, Sylvia Lee & Leticia Valencia
Theories and Practices in our Educational System today: • Culture • Assessments • Teaching Methods
The “Melting Pot” Maintain status-quo A Dominant society Assimilation The “Stew” Equal opportunity An Intercultural society Unique parts-as a whole “Educational Perspectives”
Culturally and Socially biased Diminishes self-concept and creates anxiety Limited sampling abilities Subject to error Compares individuals to a norm population various tools Raises student’s achievement and personal expectations Multiple areas of competency Direct observation of performance Enhances student’s individual strengths TESTINGStandardized vs. Authentic
One Model One language Limits knowledge Discriminates Creates a barrier for success Cultural equity Affirms identity Unlimited knowledge Embraces diversity Builds bridges between communities CULTUREMonocultural vs. Multicultural
One form of instruction Analytical approach Handicaps individual learning Individual work Paper/Pencil tasks Offers learning best suited to the student Variety of strategies Develops individual talents Promotes collaboration Reflective practice TEACHING METHODSLinguistic vs. Multiple styles
The Educational “Stew” perspective: • Allows us to focus both on the differences in the ingredients while at the same time the beauty as a whole. • A good stew does not have a bunch of components that look, taste or have the same texture. • The success of the stew depends not only on its looks but also on a lot of other factors including the taste, the freshness of the ingredients, the texture and the mixture itself.
Reading Methods • No single reading method will be effective for all students • The application of a variety of methods is extremely important • Teachers should appropriately modify or combine methods in order to meet individual needs
Students with learning disabilities should be provided with sound strategic approaches that empower them as readers, rather than be allowed to learn and internalize incorrect practices
Selecting the Appropriate Method Students who need to work on reading mechanics frequently respond to explicitly taught code-emphasis developmental reading methods such as phonic, linguistic or multisensory approaches.
Some effective reading approaches are: • Phonics approach • Linguistic method • Multisensory approach • Neorological Impress Technique • Language Experience approach • Reading comprehension support
Writing • Teachers must model writing strategies. • Teachers should exposed students to a wide variety of children’s literature with the goal of developing a feel for the rhythm and pattern of language that (they) will transfer to their writing. • Students must have opportunities to write • They must understand their own personal word banks in order to use them and write them
Writing Approaches • Modeled Writing • Interactive Writing • Guided Writing • Share Writing • Independent Writing • On-demand Writing
ESL Teaching Techniques Some effective methods to assist second language learners are: • Total Physical Response • Preview-Review • Audio Lingual Method • Direct Method • Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory Approaches
References • Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching by Diane Larsen Freeman • Write Up A Storm by Wilda Storm • Lesson Plans and Activities to Increase Writing Proficiency by Wilda Storm • Classroom Management Strategies by Cangelosis, J.S. • http://www.2edc.org/NCIP/library/vi/swenson.htm • Teaching Expressive Writing • http://ericec.org/digests/e590.html • Strategies for composition and self-Regulation in the Writing process • http://1idonline.org/1d-indepth/writing/harris-writing.htm1 • Reading methods • http://www.1donline.org/1d-idepth/reading/reading-methods.html • The Strategic Spelling Skills of students with LD • http://www.1donline.org/1d-indeprh/reading/strategiec-spelling-skills.html • A Working Definition of Multicultural Education by Paul Gorski (2000) • One Gorilla by Atsuko Morozumi • Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed by Cristeloq Eileen • Pocket Charts for Math by Scholastic Grade k-2 • Sight Word Games by Scholastic grades K-2 • Shoebox Centers by Evan Moor grades k-3