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ERA EMC Study. Phil Bebbington Head of T & RS Systems. Legislation. 28 Member Countries In the European Rail Area “Competence” for transport policy is shared between European Union and member states – shifting toward EU

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Era emc study l.jpg

ERA EMC Study

Phil Bebbington

Head of T & RS Systems


Legislation l.jpg
Legislation

28 Member Countries

In the European Rail

Area

“Competence” for transport policy is shared between European Union and member states – shifting toward EU

Concern in EU about fall in rail market share prompting drive for commonality.


Compatibility in railways l.jpg

To

The ultimate goal of one common commercially acceptable vision

of a trans European Railway

Compatibility in Railways:

Since July 2010 all vehicle authorisations are required to conform to the Interoperability Directive.”

It does not tell you how to get from a system

  • which exists

  • has many millions of man years cumulative experience and tradition

  • has components that are expected to last at least another 30 years

But it does allow for a transition


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EMC Standards

The essential requirements mandate ‘compatibility’ between all parts of the railway.

Electromagnetic compatibility is implied for both safety and operational aspects

However

Only two applicable European Norm EMC Standards exist

Standard EN 50121:2006

has five parts and although mentioning that they should be considered it

largely ignores low frequency effects

Standard EN50238:2004 currently has only 1 part

the other two parts will be issued as technical addenda rather than full standards

Neither cover the whole spectrum and both are still open to ‘interpretation’ with no clear definitions of ‘compatibility’


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Compatibility in Railways: The project

  • This project aimed to determine the starting point for Electromagnetic Compatibility in railways

    • Who determines EMC

    • What current standards are being applied

    • How they are implemented

    • What other considerations affect the acceptance


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European Directive

Electrical/electronic equipment must be constructed to ensure:

‘the EM disturbance it generates does not exceed a level allowing radio and telecommunications equipment and other apparatus to operate as intended’,

‘it has a level of intrinsic immunity which is adequate to enable it to operate as intended’

‘Has been designed and constructed with regard to the state of the art’

When it is –

Properly installed and maintained, and

Used for the purpose for which it was intended


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Physical Agents Directive

Physical Agents Directive 2004/40/EC-Electromagnetic Fields & Human Health

This should have been implemented in UK Law by April 2008.Not yet in force due to considerations of NMR workers. Currently due in 2012

Intent adds another consideration to EMC as railways have sources of both high voltage and current in close proximity to humans


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Study to collect and document rules, processes and procedures to verify the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of railway vehicles in Member States of the European Rail Area

Identify the (different) levels of compliance required for various equipment types e.g. signalling, rolling stock, trackside interfaces etc.

Identify test procedures and limits.

Clarify and document the process for the demonstration of compliance in each of the countries.

Identify the appropriate authorities concerned with EMC compliance and their roles and responsibilities.

Estimate the timescales and budget costs involved in EMC compliance. This included both documentation requirements and testing/trial costs.

Remit


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Understand the drivers : Technical Perception procedures to verify the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of railway vehicles in Member States of the European Rail Area

Commercial Imperative to get widest acceptance (Cross acceptance) because market for train equipment is small.

Must be driven by available technology: it can’t drive the technology

COTS equipment in an EXISTING railway environment.

Standards equivalence……….the devil is in the detail

System Issues CE+CE=CE????


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Understand the drivers : Information Quality procedures to verify the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of railway vehicles in Member States of the European Rail Area

Different Organisations need different degrees of detail.

Commercial confidentiality for proprietary Information

Burden of Proof can be open ended where no standards exist

Peer Review, Mutual Recognition and Verification for non-testable situations

Definitions open to interpretation

e.g. Part B safety certificate

The safety certificate shall comprise:…………and certification confirming acceptance of the provisions adopted by the railway undertaking to meet specific requirements necessary for the safe operation of the relevant network. The requirements may include application of TSIs and national safety rules…………….The certification shall be based on documentation submitted by the railway undertaking ……………

The following documents must be submitted to enable the safety authority to deliver the network-specific part of the safety certificate………………………….

— documentation from the railway undertaking on the different types of rolling stock used for the operation, including evidence that they meet requirements of TSIs or national rules and have been duly certified.


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Understand the drivers : Safety procedures to verify the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of railway vehicles in Member States of the European Rail Area

It is almost impossible to divorce technical compatibility from safety

National attitudes and to safety vary widely.

Penalties in law make everyone err on the side of caution

How safe is safe?

Lowest Common Denominator

Highest Possible Principle


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Assume that the highest level methods used by the individual countries are in accord with the directives

Each party was initially contacted via a tree-branch questionnaire that tried to avoid yes/no answers

Assumption:

Each of the parties involved had roles and responsibilities defined by the procedures and had or would create processes to fulfil the responsibilities in terms of compliance demonstration to the rules.

Initial Approach

Top Down

Less prone to get bogged down in the detail


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Initial Approach countries are in accord with the directives

Define

Role The activity of an organisation or individual with a responsibility towards compliance demonstration

Procedure The formal interaction required between Infrastructure

Managers, Railway Undertakings and Safety Authorities.

It may include mandatory and non-mandatory parts.

Process The methods used within each separate organisation that

are used in compliance demonstration.

It may include mandatory and non-mandatory methods.

Rule The criterion whereby a compliance demonstration is

assessed. Again this may include mandatory and

non-mandatory components.


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Initial Approach countries are in accord with the directives

The ends of each question branch were always aimed at being a rule which may be applied.

It was envisaged that rules may well be different for safety and for operational conformity.

e.g. a non-moving train may be safe but does not serve any purpose


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The Desired Result countries are in accord with the directives


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Implementation countries are in accord with the directives

Multilingual

Used commonly available software

Mixed answer formats

Branching structure

Simple questions: Machine translation augmented by local office native speakers

MS Office ,Email or Web based

Not a simple, fixed, structure: needs question trees that react to answer types

Only those branches which are actively needed are created.

Developed in MS Excel


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Questionnaire Flow countries are in accord with the directives


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Concept countries are in accord with the directives


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Concept countries are in accord with the directives


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Concept countries are in accord with the directives


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Concept countries are in accord with the directives


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Concept countries are in accord with the directives


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Concept countries are in accord with the directives


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Modified Approach countries are in accord with the directives

  • Top Down approach had limitations:

    • NSA recently set up in 2009.

    • NSA divorced from actual compatibility assessment process.

    • NSA often didn’t have relevant EMC experts “on tap”.

  • Result: Information from questionairres and follow-up clarification requests was not enough…

  • Thus, combined approach: Top Down AND Bottom Up

    • Convocation of NSA and EMC experts held.

    • Interviews with NSA and EMC experts held to gain both sides of “story”.

  • Result:

    • Marriage of information from many sources at once.

    • Much more complete set of information obtained.

    • Resolution of “gaps” between sides was sometimes necessary.


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Approach countries are in accord with the directives

  • Top Down approach had limitations:

    • NSA recently set up in 2009.

      • NSA divorced from actual compatibility assessment process.

      • NSA often didn’t have relevant EMC experts “on tap”.

Result: Information from questionairres and follow-up clarification requests was not enough…

  • Thus, combined approach: Top Down AND Bottom Up

    • Convocation of NSA and EMC experts held.

    • Structured Interviews with NSA and EMC experts held around graphical interface representations to gain both sides of “story”.

  • Result:

    • Marriage of information from many sources at once.

  • Much more complete set of information obtained.

  • Resolution of “gaps” between sides was sometimes necessary.


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    For more information, please contact: countries are in accord with the directives

    Lloyd’s Register Rail

    Preston Technology Centre

    Marsh Lane

    Preston

    PR1 8UQ

    T+44 (0)1772 272719F+44 (0)1772 [email protected]


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