Humanism: the philosophy of the Renaissance. Humanism in the Italian city-states. It was the study of classical Greek and Roman literature, poetry, geography, natural sciences The philosophy emphasised Man in society Life of action & social usefulness.
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Humanism in the Italian city-states • It was the study of classical Greek and Roman literature, poetry, geography, natural sciences • The philosophy emphasised Man in society • Life of action & social usefulness
3 ideas of Greeks & Romans that humanists focus on: • 1. individual worth- humans could improve themselves through study • 2. strong commitment to public service • 3. development of skills & knowledge
Francesco Petrarch (July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374), • was an Italian scholar and poet, and one of the earliest humanists. • Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". • the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. • Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. • He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages".
Studiahumanitas: • Studiahumanitas: Latin, Greek, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and ethics Rhetoric: art of the most effective speaking & writing, art of persuasion, eloquence in speaking & writing
Rhetoric This study was recommended for those in government: princes, noblemen, statesmen, & citizens
An educated ideal for:: 1. a practical life in society 2. those who held leading social positions in politics & govt.
Latinis everything • Grammar/Language meant LATIN • Greek of secondary importance (Classics were written in Latin thus not accessible to the common people)
History • Rome, ancient Greece, of one’s city, & recent and contemporary events. • History told the Humanists of their own experiences- what they could learn from the past • Made associations with the lessons of history with practical politics & govt. • Humanists wanted to forget the 900 years of “Gothic barbarism” after the fall of Rome
LionardoBruni 1405 in De studiis et literis “ the careful study of the past enlarges our foresight in contemporary affairs……and affords to citizens and monarchs lessons….From history also we draw our store of examples of moral precepts .”
History (continued) • Humanists were looking to the glorious past of the Roman Empire to forget the Dark Ages, and wrote in unashamed praise of their own cities, patrons, and rulers. • BernadoGiustiniani, Venetian, (1408-89): drew inspiration for the past , said that “letters & culture always followed a great empire”.
Education of boys • Boys began work at 13 or 14 in rich merchant houses in Genova, Milan or Venice • Humanist education up until the age of 17 • Lower middle-class boys were set to learn a trade by 7 or 8. How does this compare to our education system? • Plea by humanists not to force the boys into a mercenary merchant way of thinking
Poets • Homer, Virgil, Horace, Juvenal, Seneca, Ovid, Terence, & rarely Greek tragedies • Was a commentary on the experience of life and was used as a guide and a shaper of men.(where did this leave the women??) • Most Humanists wrote poetry or translated verses • Pre-Christian poetry was considered “Pagan Poetry”
Battista Guarino, son of prominent educator, 1457 • “…without a knowledge of Greek, Latin scholarship itself is , in any real sense, impossible.” • “ the ability to write Latin verse is one of the essential marks of an educated person.”
Contributions of Humanism to scholarship • 1. Getting texts right: dating & producing an authentic text • 2. Seeing texts in historical contexts • 3. emphasis on ascertainable facts: words, documents, dates, events, & historical persons • 4. revival of highlighted politics, war & biography • 5. new disciplines formed in order to study history better, e.g., archaeology, topography
How did the Humanist philosophy spread outside Florence? • 1. Through travel & trade-think of the port city-states (Venice, Genova, Pisa) • 2. Printed word after 1438 • 3. Monarchs support humanists
1454-1494 various wars to settle minor conflicts • In the end, these years of peace helped the Renaissance spread but • the Spanish (Ferdinand) gained control of nearly all of Italy & the French (Louis XII) took Milan
The end of the Renaissance Italian Wars 1494-1559 France (Charles VIII), Spain & the Holy Roman Empire joined forces to split Italy amongst themselves.
Death of the Renaissance Italy in 1494 • Renaissance culture did not thrive under foreign rule • Effect of the wars: to expose northern Europe to the ideas, accomplishments and culture of the Renaissance