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ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF TAP WATER IN THE EASTERN REGION. Presenters: Humphrey Darko Dr. Osmund Ansa - Asare (Environmental Chemistry Division) Mark Akrong (EBHD) Mid-Year Review Seminar: 17/07/2014. Project Team. Humphrey Darko Mark Akrong Dr. Ansa-Asare

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assessment of the quality of tap water in the eastern region

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF TAP WATER IN THE EASTERN REGION

Presenters:

Humphrey Darko

Dr. OsmundAnsa-Asare

(Environmental Chemistry Division)

Mark Akrong (EBHD)

Mid-Year Review Seminar: 17/07/2014

project team
Project Team
  • Humphrey Darko
  • Mark Akrong
  • Dr. Ansa-Asare
  • Anthony Karikari
  • Jude Quansah
  • Murijinatu Abdul-Hamid
presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Introduction
  • Objective
  • Methodology
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusions and Recommendations
introduction
Introduction
  • It is important to monitor water that is intended to be consumed for constituents which may pose a potential health risk to human health.
  • Even when drinking water sources have been subjected to treatment and disinfection, it is essential that routine examination of the supply is carried out at weekly, or even daily intervals where the population at risk is large (Chapman, 1996).
introduction1
Introduction
  • The Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (PURC) contracted the CSIR Water Research Institute (CSIR-WRI) to undertake an independent assessment of the quality of tap water in the Eastern Region in the month of April 2013. Some Districts were selected for the for the investigation.
    • NsawamAdoagyire Municipal, (Nsawam)
    • Suhum/Kraboa/Coaltar District, (Suhum)
    • New Juaben Municipal, (Koforidua)
    • Kwahu West Municipal, (Nkawkaw)
    • Kwahu South District,(Mpraeso)
    • West Akim Municipal (Asamakese)
    • East Akim District (Akim –Tafo)
    • Kwaebibirem District (Kade)
    • Birim Central Municipal (Akim-Oda)
    • Akwapim South District (Aburi)
    • Akwapim North Municipal (Akropong)
  • The assessment involved physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters of tap used by consumers.
objective of the study
Objective of the Study
  • The objective of the study was to investigate the quality of tap water consumed in the Eastern Region, to determine its suitability for drinking.
methodology sampling
Methodology-Sampling
  • Field visits were made to 43 sampling locations.
  • Samples were collected and brought to CSIR-WRI Labs in Accra for analysis.
  • The samples were collected from:
    • Public standpipes
    • Secondary Schools
    • Hospitals
    • Regional Minister’s Residence
    • Private homes
    • Few Boreholes
methodology sampling1
Methodology- sampling

PSP at Nkawkaw

Akim-Oda Sec Sch. Kitchen

KwawuTafo Sec Sch

KwahuTafo Booster Station

methodology sampling2
Methodology- sampling

K’duaCent.Hospital Kitchen

Reg. Min. Residence, K’dua, Kitchen

results and discussion
Results and discussion
  • Key Physico-chemical parameters:
  •  pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, TDS, TSS, Total Hardness;
  • Nutrients (NO3-N, PO4-P);
  • Major Ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3-, SO42-);
  • Metals (Fe, Mn);
  • Chlorine Residual.
  • Key Bateriological Parameters: (TC, FC, E. coli, THB)
  • The quality of the water was assessed in relation to World Health Organisationguideline values for drinking water (WHO, 2006)
results and discussions turbidity
Results and discussions - Turbidity

Represents both aesthetic and health problem

High turbidity in drinking water will make it objectionable.

Turbidity can provide food and shelter for pathogens.

If not removed, turbidity can promote regrowth of pathogens in the distribution system, leading to waterborne disease outbreaks, eg. Gastroenteritis USEPA,1999).

results and discussion total hardness
Results and discussion – Total Hardness

Makes water unable to lather well with soap.

Deposits scales on surfaces of cooking utensils used in the household for heating, eg. saucepans,

Kettles.

WHO guideline is 500 mg/lCaCO3.

results and discussion chlorine residual
Results and discussion - Chlorine Residual
  • To ensure that drinking water is free of disease-causing microorganisms, chlorine residual should be maintained in the distribution system.
  • It is required to range between 0.1 mg/l to 0.2 mg/l at consumers tap.
conclusions and recommendations
Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Physico-chemical quality:
  • Except low pH and low Free Cl which were observed in few of the waters, levels of the other physico-chemical parameters in the waters were satisfactory to make the waters suitable for drinking.
  • Bacteria quality:
  • The bacteria quality of the waters, however, were found to be poor due to presence of bacteria counts in most of the waters. It is therefore advised that water from the tap should be boiled to kill off any probable bacteria before used for drinking.
conclusions and recommendations1
Conclusions and Recommendations
  • NsawamAdoagyireMunicpal, Kwahu West Municipal, Kwahu South Dist., were seen to be poorest with regard to bacterial quality.
  • It is recommended that re-chlorination should be done frequently at the booster stations to prevent any bacterial re-growth.
conclusions and recommendations2
Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Regular monitoring of the quality of tap water in our distribution systems is necessary to ensure good quality of water to consumers.