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Introduction, Body, and Conclusion. Chapter Four The Third Step in Essay Writing. Step Three: Organize and Connect the Specific Evidence. Organize and connect your supporting material by using: common methods of organization effective transitions other connecting words.

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introduction body and conclusion

Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

Chapter Four

The Third Step in Essay Writing

step three organize and connect the specific evidence
Step Three: Organize and Connect the Specific Evidence
  • Organize and connect your supporting material by using:
    • common methods of organization
    • effective transitions
    • other connecting words
common methods of organization
Common Methods of Organization
  • Time Order
  • Emphatic Order
time order
Time Order

Also referred to as “chronological order”

Details are listed as they occur intime. Firstthisis done; nextthis;thenthis; after that,this; and so on.

Example:To exercise successfully, you should follow a simple plan consisting of arranging the time, making preparations, and warming up properly.

emphatic order
Emphatic Order

Also referred to as “saving the best for last”

Emphasisis placed on the most important detailby positioning it near the endof a paragraph or an essay.

  • Example: Celebrities lead very stressful lives. They work long, unusual hours. In addition, they have to manage their images. Most important, celebrities must deal with the stress of being in constant danger.
transitional words
Transitional Words

Transitionssignal thedirectionof a writer’s thoughts. They are likeroad signsthat guide travelers.

  • Example:Afteryou’ve snagged the job of TV sports reporter, you have to begin working on the details of your image. First,invest in two or three loud sports jackets [. . .].
transitional sentences
Transitional Sentences

Transitional, orlinking, sentencesare used between paragraphs to help tie them smoothly together.

  • Example:Many of the other patrons are even more of a problem than the concession stand.
  • (Concession standreminds us of the previous supporting paragraph, while many of the other patronsintroduces the point to be developed next.)
other connecting words
Other Connecting Words
  • Repeated Words
  • Pronouns
  • Synonyms
repeated words

Repeating key words helps tie together the flow of thoughts in a paper.

Example: One reason for studying psychology is [. . .]. Psychology is also useful in [. . .].


Pronouns (he, she, it, you, they, this, that, and others) connect ideas and help you avoid needless repetition.

Example: Another way for people to economize at an amusement park is to bring their own food. If they pack a lunch, they will avoid high prices.


Synonymsare words that are alike in meaning, like pretty and attractive. They can be used to help writing flow. (They also add variety and interest to your sentences.)

Example:There are several methods of fund-raising [. . .]. One technique is to hold an auction [. . .].

introductions conclusions and titles
Introductions, Conclusions, and Titles

A well-developed introduction, conclusion, and title can also help organize and connect your essay…

methods of introduction
Methods of Introduction
  • 1: Begin with a general statement of your topic.
  • 2: Start with an idea or a situation that is the opposite of the one you will develop.
  • 3: Explain the importance of the topic to your reader.
  • 4: Use an incident or a brief story.
  • 5: Ask one or more questions.
  • 6: Use a quotation.
common methods of conclusion
Common Methods of Conclusion
  • 1: End with a summary and a final thought.
  • 2: Include a thought-provoking question.
  • 3: End with a prediction or recommendation.

Titles are brief summaries of what your paper is about.

Examples: How to Complain; Student Zombies

Note: You should not underline or put “quotation marks” around the title, but you should CAPITALIZE all but small connecting words.