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Adaptive QoS Control of Multimedia Transmission Over Band-limited Networks. G.Y.Hong 1 , Member, IEEE, A.C.M.Fong 1 , Member, IEEE, B.Fong 2 , Member, IEEE 1 IIMS, Massey University, 2 Auckland University of Technology. Presenter : Hu Huang Nov. 2002.

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Adaptive qos control of multimedia transmission over band limited networks

Adaptive QoS Control of Multimedia Transmission Over Band-limited Networks

G.Y.Hong1, Member, IEEE, A.C.M.Fong1, Member, IEEE, B.Fong2, Member, IEEE

1IIMS, Massey University, 2Auckland University of Technology

Presenter: Hu Huang

Nov. 2002

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol.48, No.3, AUGUST 2002

Background Band-limited Networks

  • Users of next generation communication devices (cellular phones and PDAs) will increasingly require access to multimedia contents(video etc.) on internet, which places heavy demand on the Quality of service(QoS) control mechanism due to limited network bandwidth resources, varying channel conditions(e.g. fading) and limited device capabilities(e.g. processing power, display size).

  • The heterogeneous nature of the Internet and other band-limited networks means that it is often unrealistic to rely on network routers for QoS support.

  • In contrast, application-layer QoS mechanisms that do not rely on the network tend to provide most robust solutions and are compatible with even very poor network condition, which may also be time varying.

  • So, an adaptive and robust QoS algorithm (from transport perspective) for band-limited networks was proposed in this paper.

Contents Band-limited Networks

  • Current application-layer QoS control techniques

  • Proposed adaptive QoS control approach

  • Experimental results

  • Conclusion

Adaptive qos control of multimedia transmission over band limited networks

Application-layer QoS control Band-limited Networks

Congestion Control

Error Control

Rate Control

(sender and /or receiver)

Rate Shaping


Channel-based FEC

Current Application-Layer QoS Control Techniques(for multimedia data transmission over band-limited networks)

Fig. 1 Application-layer QoS control (transport perspective)

Adaptive qos control approach described in this paper
Adaptive QoS Control Band-limited Networks(approach described in this paper)

Adaptive qos control cont
Adaptive QoS Control (Cont.) Band-limited Networks

An adaptive QoS control mechanism that adapts to network conditions as perceived by each receiver has been proposed.

Adaptive qos control cont1
Adaptive QoS Control (Cont.) Band-limited Networks

  • Rate Control

    Receiver side:

    Model-based control (Bernoulli model)

    packet loss detection: threshold =3

    packet loss ratio r = nL/n (within one sampled period)

    smoothed loss ratio j=j-1+(1-)rj(=0.33)

    Transmitter Side:

    AIMD (Additive Increase and Multiplicative Decrease) rate adjustment:

    Appropriately loaded  transmission rate to that receiver is not changed

    Heavily loaded  transmission rate is aggressively decreased

    Lightly loaded  transmission rate is gradually increased

    depending on j

Adaptive qos control cont2
Adaptive QoS Control (Cont.) Band-limited Networks

  • Rate shaping with multiple quantization parameters

    Purpose:produce scalable multimedia data streams for different transmission rates for different receivers at different times, achieving optimal match between network resources, devices capabilities and transmission rate.

Q1 (QP1)->EC


Transformed Data --

Q2 (QP2)->EC




Fig. 4 Rate shaping with multiple QP

In the proposed approach, N =3 to obtain three bitstreams of different quality (Bitstream3 is the highest quality while Bitstream1 is the least).

Adaptive qos control cont3

………………… Band-limited Networks






Adaptive QoS Control (Cont.)

  • Adaptive Forward Error Correction (FEC)

Each block of Kprimary data packets has a parity packet P appended to it, which is used for recovering lost packets.

Fig.5 Transmitted data stream

P=d1 d2d3 …dk

K= (, 16, 8, 4, 2) depending on the prevailing network condition.

(e.g. K=  indicates Pis not employed at all due to good network condition).

jis used to determine the appropriate degree of protection.

Experimental results
Experimental Results Band-limited Networks

PSNR=20 lg[(2b-1)/RMSE]

(PSNR: peak signal-to-noise ratio; RMSE: root mean squared error)

The results indicate that the new scheme consistently outperformed the standard MPEG codec with fewer fluctuations. Average improvement of 0.5dB PSNR can be achieved over standard MPEG implementation.

Conclusion Band-limited Networks

  • The proposed mechanism combines explicit estimation network condition for additive increase multiplicative decrease (AIMD) rate control, rate shaping with multiple quantization parameters(QP), and adaptive FEC into an integrated scheme.

  • Not only sender but also receivers actively participate in the close-loop feedback control scheme, which makes the mechanism adaptive to varying network conditions as experienced by each receiver.

Adaptive qos control of multimedia transmission over band limited networks

End Band-limited Networks