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Managerial Leadership MGTO 234 - 7. Dr. William A. Snow Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Department of Management of Organizations College of Business & Management. From Then (1940s) to Now (2001): Brief Overview of Leadership Evolution.

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Managerial leadership mgto 234 7
Managerial LeadershipMGTO 234 - 7

Dr. William A. Snow

Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

Department of Management of Organizations

College of Business & Management

From then 1940s to now 2001 brief overview of leadership evolution
From Then (1940s) to Now (2001): Brief Overview of Leadership Evolution

Ohio State Leadership Studies: Task and Relationship (1940s-Ralph Stodgill)

  • Initiating structure: A type of leader behavior that describes the extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement

  • Consideration: A type of leader behavior that describes the extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.

Leader behavior
Leader Behavior Leadership Evolution


Initiating Structure

Leadership grid production and people 1960s blake mouton
Leadership Grid-Production and People (1960s-Blake & Mouton) Leadership Evolution

  • Concern for people

  • Concern for production

  • 5 distinct styles of management-preferences

    • Impoverished Management (1, 1)

    • Country Club Management (1, 9)

    • Authority-Obedience Management (9, 1)

    • Organizational Man Management (5, 5)

    • Team Management (9, 9)

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Leadership Evolution

Contingency Theories of Leadership

Normative decision model
Normative Decision Model Leadership Evolution

  • The Normative Decision Model, is directed at determining how much input subordinates should have in the decision making process.

Decision making processes
Decision-making processes Leadership Evolution

  • To determine which situational and follower factors affect the level of participation and group performance, Vroom and Yetton investigated the decision-making processes leaders use in group settings.

Continuum of decision making processes
Continuum of decision-making processes Leadership Evolution


Decision process


Decision quality

Decision acceptance

Subordinate development

B. Does leader have sufficient information?

D. Acceptance important for implementation?

E. If decision made is solely by leader, will it be accepted by subordinates?

F. Do subordinates share organizational goals?

G. Is conflict over preferred solution likely?

A. Quality requirement?

C. Is problem structured?



The path goal theory
The Path-Goal Theory Leadership Evolution

The Path-Goal Theory:

  • deals with:

    • expectancy

    • performance-to-outcome probabilities, and

    • assigned valences or values to outcome.

The path goal theory1
The Path-Goal Theory Leadership Evolution

  • Expectancy -If I study for 12 hours, what is the probability I will get an A on the exam?

  • Performance-to-outcome probabilities - If I get an A on the final, what is the probability of getting an A in the course?

  • Assigned valences or values to outcome - How much do I value a higher GPA

Path goal theory and interactional framework
Path-Goal Theory and Leadership EvolutionInteractional Framework

Leader behavior: Directive, Supportive, Participative, Achievement-oriented



Skills and abilities

expectations and work perceptions of own group abilities


Acceptance of leader

Follower motivation

Follower satisfaction



Contingency model situational late 1960s fiedler
Contingency Model-Situational (late 1960s-Fiedler) Leadership Evolution

  • Three major situational variables:

    • Leader-member relations

    • Task structure

    • Position power

  • Task oriented leaders tend to perform best in group situations that are either very favorable or very unfavorable to the leader

  • Relationship oriented leaders tend to perform best in situations that are intermediate in favorableness

3 d management style theory situational 1970s william reddin
3-D Management Style Theory-Situational (1970s-William Reddin)

  • The effectiveness of leaders depends on how appropriate their leadership style is to the situation in which they operate

  • A variety of styles can be effective or ineffective depending on the situation

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Situational leadership
Situational Leadership Reddin)

  • Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, & Dewey E. Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. (1996.) 7th Edition. Prentice-Hall Publishers, Upper Saddle River, NJ., USA. Page 7.

  • “Management is the process of working with and through individuals and groups and other resources (such as equipment, capital, and technology) to accomplish organizational goals.”

  • “Leadership occurs whenever one person attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group, regardless of the reason.”

  • “Leadership is a broader concept than management.”

Mgto234 7
L = f (l, f, s) Reddin)The leadership process is a function of the leader, the follower, and other situational variables.

  • Variables: Job, Situation, People

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  • No mention of the Reddin)type of organization

  • Could be business, educational institution, hospital, political organization, or family

  • Anytime an individual attempts to influence the behavior of someone else that individual is the potential leader-boss, colleague, subordinate, friend, relative, or group

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Reddin)

Followers and Followership

Effective followers
Effective followers Reddin)

  • Effective followers “have the vision to see both the forest and the trees, the social capacity to work well with others, the strength of character to flourish without heroic status, the moral and psychological balance to pursue personal and corporate goals at no cost to either, and, above all, the desire to participate in a team effort for the accomplishment of some greater purpose.”

Characteristics of followership
Characteristics of Followership Reddin)

  • Cohesion

  • Supporting top leadership

  • Raising issues with top leadership

  • Taking initiative

  • Taking personal responsibility for performance

Five style of followers
Five Style of Followers Reddin)

  • Alienated Followers

  • Conformist Followers

  • Pragmatist Followers

  • Passive Followers

  • Exemplary Followers

Partnering Reddin)

  • Partnering deals with the quality of relationships between leaders and followers rather than on characteristics of leaders and followers.

Situational characteristics
Situational Characteristics Reddin)

  • Crises

  • Task Interdependence

  • Innovation

  • More Receptive to Change

  • Organizational Downsizing

Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Reddin)

Characteristics of the Situation

Historically Reddin)

  • Historically, researchers maintained that the situation, not someone’s traits or abilities, plays the most important role in determining who emerges as a leader. They also believed that leaders were made, not born, and that prior leadership experience helped forge effective leaders.

More recently
More recently Reddin)

  • Leadership theories have explored how situational factors affect leaders’ behaviors.

  • a leader’s behavior was said to be depend on a leader’s perceptions of several critical aspects of the situation

    • rules and regulations governing the job

    • role expectations of subordinates

    • peers, and superiors

    • the nature of the task

    • and feedback about the subordinates’ performance.

The congruence model is a systems model with inputs processes and outputs
The Congruence Model is a systems model with inputs, processes, and outputs.

  • Input, which consists of the environment, resources, and history.

  • Processes, which consist of the work, people, formal organization, and informal organization.

  • Output, which consists of the system, unit, and individual.

Congruence model
Congruence Model processes, and outputs.

  • The core of the Congruence Model has four components:

    • the work,

    • the people,

    • the formal organizational,

    • the informal organization.

Congruence model1
Congruence Model processes, and outputs.

  • The work is “what is to be done” by the organization and its component parts.

  • The people refers to the leader and followers and their skills, knowledge, experience, expectations, needs and preferences.

Congruence model2
Congruence Model processes, and outputs.

  • The formal organization addresses how the level of authority, organizational structure, organizational design, lateral interdependence, and organizational culture affect leaders’ and followers’ behavior.

  • The informal organization refers to its culture (shared backgrounds, norms, values, or beliefs.)

Environmental characteristics
Environmental characteristics processes, and outputs.

  • Environmental characteristics concern situational factors outside the task or organization that still affect the leadership process. These include technological, economic, political, social, and legal forces.

Situational leadership 1970s hersey blanchard
Situational Leadership (1970s-Hersey & Blanchard) processes, and outputs.

  • Task, Relationship, Effectiveness

  • Task behavior: Extent to which leader engages in spelling out the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group

  • Relationship behavior: Extent to which leader engages in two-way or multiway communication.

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  • Follower readiness: 2 types processes, and outputs.

    • Ability: knowledge, skills, experience

    • Willingness: confidence, commitment and motivation to accomplish specific task

Mgto234 7

  • Lead Self Instrument processes, and outputs.

  • Directions for Scoring

  • Correct Answers

  • Video, “12 Angry Men”