slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5315 The Characteristics of Di PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5315 The Characteristics of Di

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 39

Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5315 The Characteristics of Di - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 118 Views
  • Uploaded on

Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5315 The Characteristics of Diversity. Session 5 Dyspraxia (Developmental Co-ordination Disorder) and dysgraphia. Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education. 1.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5315 The Characteristics of Di' - britannia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language TeachingENG5315The Characteristics of Diversity

Session 5

Dyspraxia (Developmental Co-ordination Disorder) and dysgraphia

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

1

dyspraxia
Dyspraxia

Comes from the Greek word ‘praxis’, which means doing, acting or deed.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

3

what is dyspraxia
What is dyspraxia?
  • ‘An impairment or immaturity in the organization of movement which leads to associated problems with language, perception and thought’ (The Dyspraxia Foundation, 1999)

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

what is dyspraxia5
What is dyspraxia?

Developmental dyspraxia is a neurologically based disorder.

It is a motor-planning difficulty that is present from birth.

Children with dyspraxia do learn to walk, run and write but they often develop these skills - their motor milestones - later than the others.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

5

what is dyspraxia6
What is dyspraxia?

Dyspraxic subjects will have poor understanding of the messages that their senses convey and will experience difficulty in relating those messages to appropriate actions.

Physical activities are hard to learn and hard to remember (Brookes, 2007).

They do have a problem with coordination which needs to be addressed early to maximize the chance of improvement.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

6

three sub components of movement
Three sub-components of movement

Ideation

Children who have difficulty with this aspect of movement preparation can often been seen as wandering around, or doing something aimlessly.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

7

three sub components of movement8
Three sub-components of movement

Motor planning

Children who are poor planners know what they want to achieve, but have difficulty knowing how to bring their ideas to fruition.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

8

three sub components of movement9
Three sub-components of movement

Execution

Carrying out the movement with all the movement ability requirements such as balance and control coming into play (Macintyre, 2001).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

9

what coordination difficulties do dyspraxic children have
What coordination difficulties do dyspraxic children have?

Whole body coordination

Involves the large muscle groups and affects gross motor skills.

Hand-eye/Foot-eye coordination

Fine motor control

Requires the smaller groups of muscles to work in harmony.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

10

types of dyspraxia
Types of dyspraxia

Oral dyspraxia

A child will not be able to reproduce mouth movement.

Verbal dyspraxia

A child will have difficulty in making sounds.

Motor dyspraxia

This prevents a child moving in a planned way.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

11

causes of dyspraxia
Causes of dyspraxia
  • Parts of the motor cortex in the brain do not develop properly.
  • This prevents messages from being transmitted efficiently to the body.
  • The brain sends out a message but it either never arrives or it staggers into the station after the moment has passed.
  • So dyspraxics have difficulty in planning movement to achieve a predetermined idea or purpose (Brookes, 2007).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

causes of dyspraxia13
Causes of dyspraxia

There may be an inherited tendency.

If there is a history of dyspraxia on the mother’s side, there is a one in three chance of it being passed on.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

13

who gets dyspraxia
Who gets dyspraxia?

The condition affects up to 4 per cent of the population.

At least 70 per cent of those affected are male.

Sufferers are generally of average or above average intelligence (Brookes, 2007).

Children with dyspraxia look just the same as other children (‘hidden handicap’).

There is often overlap with other syndrome.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

14

symptoms of dyspraxia
Symptoms of dyspraxia
  • Individual children have their own pattern of signs and symptoms, including:
  • Clumsy and awkward
  • Poor writing and drawing ability
  • Short attention span
  • Difficulty in carrying out instructions
  • Frequently falling and bumping into things
  • Poor posture and fatigue

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

symptoms of dyspraxia16
Symptoms of dyspraxia

Poor achievement can lead to low self-esteem and antisocial behaviour

Problems involving undoing buttons or zips and tying laces

Difficulty in producing coordinated action

Poor sense of balance

Difficulty in retaining more than one piece of information

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

16

observable behaviours in children of primary school age
Observable behaviours in children of primary school age

Organizational difficulties

Difficulty adapting to a structured school routine

Continuing difficulties evident in PE

Uncoordinated movements

Slow at dressing

Buttons fastened in the wrong holes

Unable to tie shoe laces

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

17

observable behaviours in children of primary school age18
Observable behaviours in children of primary school age

Handwriting difficulties

Excessive time required for completion of task

Repetition and practice has little effect on the development of skills

Copying skills are poor

Drawings continue to be immature

Difficulty remembering instructions

Problems with concentration

Difficulty remaining on task

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

18

observable behaviours in children of primary school age19
Observable behaviours in children of primary school age

Highly emotional

Problems with social relationship

Problems with peer relationships, often evident in the nursery environment persist throughout school

Isolated within the classroom and in the playground

Enjoys the security of relationships with adults (Portwood, 2000)

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

19

observable behaviours in pupils of secondary school age
Observable behaviours in pupils of secondary school age

Difficulties with social relationships

Child presents as a loner who prefers his/her own company

Difficulties in organization

Unable to follow a timetable

Highly emotional

Difficulties with coordination persist

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

20

observable behaviours in pupils of secondary school age21
Observable behaviours in pupils of secondary school age

Major difficulties experienced with work which must be committed to paper, handwriting is usually printed rather than cursive

Poor short-term visual and auditory memory

Copying from the board

Taking dictated notes (Portwood, 2000)

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

21

assessment of dyspraxia
Assessment of dyspraxia

It is the parents of the child who usually carry out the most effective initial diagnosis.

A weak sucking reflex is often an early indicator.

The child may be late in learning to sit, stand or walk.

As far as crawling is concerned, some dyspraxic children never manage it at all (Brookes, 2007).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

22

assessment of dyspraxia23
Assessment of dyspraxia

Continuous assessment and recording of encountered difficulties in different situations is essential before specialist help is requested (Macintyre, 2001).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

23

assessment and diagnosis of dyspraxia
Assessment and diagnosis of dyspraxia

The basic criterion is motor coordination that is significantly below the level expected, based on age and intelligence.

The Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is most commonly employed (by registered Educational Psychologists only).

It contains a range of tests to measure verbal or performance ability. The results are combined to give a final IQ.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

24

assessment and diagnosis of dyspraxia25
Assessment and diagnosis of dyspraxia

The WISC doesn’t confirm dyspraxia. It is part of the picture.

Particularly useful are observations on the child’s behaviour during play.

Has poor posture been noted?

Are there any difficulties in eye-hand coordination?

The children’s ability to stand still or on one leg or to throw and catch a large soft ball might be assessed (Brookes, 2007).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

25

assessment and diagnosis of dyspraxia26
Assessment and diagnosis of dyspraxia

The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC)

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

26

dysgraphia
Dysgraphia

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

what is dysgraphia
What is dysgraphia?
  • ‘A difficulty in automatically remembering and mastering the sequence of muscle motor movements needed in writing letters or numbers’ (Richards, 1998, p. 13).
  • This difficulty then interferes with the automatic use of other skills for written expression.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

what is dysgraphia29
What is dysgraphia?
  • Dysgraphia is primarily a processing problem, i.e., an impairment in a process of writing rather than merely a poor product or end result.
  • It is a difficulty which is out of harmony with the person’s intelligence or regular teaching instruction.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

what is dysgraphia30
What is dysgraphia?
  • Neurologically based
  • May exist in varying degrees, ranging from mild to moderate
  • It can be diagnosed and overcome if appropriate remedial strategies are conscientiously carried out.

* It is important to note that remedial programs generally work more efficiently with younger students because the inefficient habits and patterns are less ingrained.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

what is dysgraphia31
What is dysgraphia?
  • Dysgraphia seldom exists in isolation or without other symptoms of learning problems.

It is most commonly related to learning problems within the sphere of written language and is frequently associated with dyslexia (Richards, 1998).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

three types of dysgraphia
Three types of dysgraphia
  • Dyslexic dysgraphia
    • Spontaneous written text is illegible
    • Oral spelling is poor
    • Drawing and copying of written text are relatively normal

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

three types of dysgraphia33
Three types of dysgraphia
  • Motor dysgraphia
    • Both spontaneously written and copied text may be illegible
    • Oral spelling is normal
    • Drawing is usually problematic

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

three types of dysgraphia34
Three types of dysgraphia
  • Spatial dysgraphia
    • People display illegible writing, whether spontaneously produced or prepared
    • Oral spelling is normal
    • Drawing is very problematic (LDAO, n.d.).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

symptoms of dysgraphia
Symptoms of dysgraphia
  • Odd wrist, body and paper positions
  • Excessive erasures
  • Mixture of upper- and lowercase letters
  • Mixture of printed and cursive letters
  • Inconsistent letter formations
  • Irregular letter sizes and shapes
  • Misuse of line and margin
  • Poor organization on the page
  • Inefficient speed in copying
  • General illegibility (Richards, 1998)

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

major cause of the problem of inconsistencies
Major cause of the problem of inconsistencies
  • Weak motor memory

The process of writing letters or numbers requires a sequential motor memory to remember the correct sequence of movements needed to form letters (Richards, 1998).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

identifying the dysgraphic student
Identifying the dysgraphic student
  • Identify clusters of symptoms. Look for a pattern.
  • Observe the student’s performance when copying and also when performing spontaneous writing.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

identifying the dysgraphic student38
Identifying the dysgraphic student
  • Motor difficulties

The inability to carry out a sequential motor movement in order to perform a motor task is often observed in students who display general clumsiness.

  • Pencil grip

Observe for consistency of grip usage and check the pressure on pencil (should not be too light or too heavy) (Richards, 1998).

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

references
References

Brookes, G. (2007). Dyspraxia (2nd ed.). London; New York: Continuum.

Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario (LDAO). (n.d.). Dysgraphia: The handwriting learning disability. Retrieved January 18, 2009, from http://www.ldao.ca/aboutLDs/article_full.php?id=020

Macintyre, C. (2001). Dyspraxia 5 - 11: A practical guide. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Portwood, M. (2000). Understanding developmental dyspraxia: A textbook for students and professionals. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Richards, R. G. (1998). The writing dilemma: Understanding dysgraphia. Riverside, CA: Richards Educational Therapy Center, inc.

Prepared by Ruby Yang, Department of English, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

39