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TENSES. Different forms of the main verbs (verb forms) are combined with different auxiliary verbs to make up the finite verb groups in sentences. Finite verb groups  signal TENSE and ASPECT . TENSE  refers to the time of an action; PRESENT (exists now),

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TENSES

lds_neirma19_2010

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Different forms of the main verbs (verb forms) are combined

  • with different auxiliary verbs to make up the finite verb groups
  • in sentences.
  • Finite verb groups  signal TENSE and ASPECT.
  • TENSE  refers to the time of an action;
        • PRESENT (exists now),
        • PAST (existed in the past) or
        • FUTURE (likely to exist in the future)
  • ASPECT  refers to the nature of the action or event described
  • by the verb;
        • SIMPLE (indefinite),
        • PERFECT (completed) or
        • CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE(still continuing)

verb form + auxiliary verb = finite verbs of a sentence

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TENSES :

FORMS

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PRESENT TENSES

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PAST TENSES

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FUTURE TENSES

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TENSES : FUNCTIONS

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PRESENT TENSES

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE_1

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE_2

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE_3

*Simple Present Tense - to talk about permanent situations / things that happen repeatedly / all the time.

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE_3

*Present Continuous Tense - to talk about a temporary situation that have a definite time

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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE_1

results

of the action

action/event is still in progress

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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE_2

*Present Perfect Tense – cannot be used with words that refer to a completely finished period of time like already, yesterday.

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PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE_1

results

of the action

action/event is still in progress

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PAST TENSES

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SIMPLE PAST TENSE_1

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SIMPLE PAST TENSE_2

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PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE_1

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PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE_2

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PAST PERFECT TENSE_1

action completed

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PAST PERFECT TENSE_2

no longer teaching

had stopped teaching

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PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE_1

I was waiting

4.00 p.m.:

I saw Rob

streets were wet

the race started

it was raining

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PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE_2

Ellina stopped working

Asiah is still working here

Ellina is no longer working here

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FUTURE TENSES

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SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE_1

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SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE_2

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SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE_3

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FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE_1

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FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE_2

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FUTURE PERFECT TENSE_1

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FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE_1

Sue gets here

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FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE_2

retire

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