shi a hierarchy the ayatollahs n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Shi’a Hierarchy The Ayatollahs PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Shi’a Hierarchy The Ayatollahs

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 39
britanni-hyde

Shi’a Hierarchy The Ayatollahs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

56 Views
Download Presentation
Shi’a Hierarchy The Ayatollahs
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Shi’a HierarchyThe Ayatollahs

  2. The Classification of this Presentation is….. UNCLASSIFIED Conclusions presented in this lecture are derived from independent analysis from an objective point of view with the intention to educate military personnel regarding indigenous culture. Please respect the policy of academic freedom and do not release this material publicly without prior consent.

  3. Objective • Action: Identify key aspects of the Shia Hierarchy. • Conditions: Given instruction. • Standards: Identified key aspects of Shia Hierarchy.

  4. Administrative Data • Safety Requirements: None • Risk Assessment Level: Low • Environmental Considerations: None • Evaluation: Exam

  5. Overview ► Najaf, Brief History ► Shi’a Hierarchy ► Previous/Current Grand Ayatollahs ► The Big 5 ► Persons of Interest ► Important Deceased Religious Figures ► Association Chart

  6. Najaf Shrine of Ali, 4th Caliph of Islam and 1St Imam of Shi’a Islam. He is the spiritual founder of all Shi’a sects. The Shi’a religious seminary and center of religious scholarship. Shiites comprise 60% of Iraq’s 26 million people but has traditionally been in the political minority

  7. Shi’a Hierarchy Grand Ayatollah – “great sign of God” Ayatollah – “sign of God” Hojat al Islam – “authority on Islam” Mubellegh al Risala – “carrier of the message” Mujtahid – “graduate of religious seminary” Talib ilm – “religious student”

  8. Previous Grand Ayatollahs GA Muhsin al Hakim 1955-1970 GA Imam Abul Qassim al Khoei 1970-1992 GA Muhammed Sadiq al Sadr 1992- 1999 GA Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani 1999 to Present

  9. Five (?) Current Grand Ayatollahs Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Sayid al Hakim Grand Ayatollah Bashir Hussain al Najafi Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Ishaq Fayadh Grand Ayatollah Kazim al Ha’eri-Yazdi

  10. Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani ► Reclusive, brilliant Islamic scholar, viewed as the Religious Authority in Iraq. ► Controls the Najaf Hawza al Ilmiya (circle of learned Islamic scholars). ► Several assassination attempts ► Born 1930/Iranian ► Prolific writer ► Operates from a conservative or “quietist” Shi’a tradition ► Resides in Najaf ► Supports the United Iraqi Alliance for January 2005 elections ► www.sistani.org

  11. Grand Ayatollah SistaniAssociations

  12. Grand Ayatollah Bashir Hussain al Najafi ► Pakistani ► Prominent cleric after Sistani ► Reclusive, yet colorful ► Regarded as a source of religious emulation and his written opinion carries the force of law ► Political conservative ► Resides in Najaf ► Two significant assassination attempts 6 JAN 99 (grenade tossed into his home) 9 JUL 03 (assassin hid in his home) ► “The Iraqi people are so deprived and they’ve been suffering for a long time. We want to spare them another war.” 10/22/03

  13. Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Sayid al Hakim ► Iraqi ► Resides in Najaf ► Head of one of Iraq’s most powerful cleric families ► Not associated with SCIRI ►Assassination attempt on 24 AUG 03 Bomb detonated in his home but he was unharmed ► Associated with: the late Grand Ayatollah Muhsin al Hakim (brother) Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim (nephew) the late Grand Ayatollah Sayid Muhammad Baqir al Hakim (nephew/founder of SCIRI and Islamic Movement)

  14. Grand Ayatollah al Hakim Associations

  15. Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Ishaq Fayadh ► Afghani ► Resides in Najaf ► Political conservative ► Regarded as a source of religious emulation

  16. Grand Ayatollah Kazim al Ha’eri-Yazdi ► Often called the 5th Grand Ayatollah ► Born 1939 (?) ► Resides in Qom Iran ► Living in exile since 1979 but keeps an office in Najaf ► Favors a Khomeini style government in Iraq Velayet-e Faqih ► Muqtada al Sadr is his professed lieutenant ► Frequent anti-American/anti-Semitic expressions

  17. Grand Ayatollah al Ha’eri-Yazdi Associations

  18. Other Persons of Interest Muqtada al Sadr Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadallah

  19. Muqtada al Sadr ► No formal Islamic training ► Born (?) 1974 ► Head (by death and default) of his influential family ► Ultra Shi’a conservative/Velayet-e Faqih ► Owes his support base to: family name/legacy control of Sadr City markets and infrastructure Mehdi Army ► Dual motivation: Oppose US and trump Iraqi rivals

  20. Muqtada al Sadrand Conflict in Najaf ► Fighting and unrest in Najaf August 2004 ► Iraqi Decisions, Coalition Might

  21. Muqtada al Sadr and a Move Toward Peace in Najaf ► Disarmament/Weapons for Cash/Prisoner Release Left the good guns at home, hedging against peace and the reality of cash ► $5 for a hand grenade ► $50 for an automatic weapon (AK-47) ► $1,000 for a heavy caliber machine gun ► Sadr City support 500M in pledged support Rebuild Sadr City infrastructure and reconstruction

  22. Muqtada al Sadr Associations

  23. SCIRIThe Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq • ► Political party • ► Membership composed of Shi’ites • ► Formed by GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Hakim • ► Iran based (supported Iran during Iran-Iraq War) • ► Established the Badr Corps (Badr Bde or Org) • ► Currently directed by Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim • ► Avoids confrontations with GA Sistani • ► Iraqi Nationalist stance under Aziz al Hakim • Heavily invested in 30 January 2005 elections

  24. Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim ► Leader of SCIRI ► Public leader of a very influential/powerful family ► Participant in Iraqi Provisory Government in 2003 ► Liaison for GA Sistani to Iraqi Governing Council ► Politically savvy/Understands Globalization ► Refers to Iraq resistance fighters as “terrorists” ► Assassination attempt, 27 December 2004

  25. Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim Associations

  26. Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadallah ► Spiritual inspiration for Lebanon’s Hizbullah Party ► Established himself in Lebanon in 1965 ► Originally from Najaf

  27. Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi • ► Director of Iraqi National Congress • Iraqi Interim Governing Council President (Sep 03) • One time Pentagon favorite • His party supported in Jan 05 elections • Shia Arab, left Iraq in 1956 • Convicted of bank fraud in Jordan • Warrant for arrest issued in Iraq for counterfeiting (9 August 04) • Nephew, Salem, charged with the murder of general director of the Finance Ministry, Haithem Fadhil (9 August 04)

  28. Important Deceased Religious Figures

  29. Grand Ayatollah Sayid Mohammad Baqir al Hakim ► Born 1939, Najaf ► Assassinated 29 August 2003 ► Founded SCIRI ► Openly condemned Ba’thist rule ► Extensive family connections ► Welcomed as Iraq’s great hope for national unity

  30. Grand Ayatollah al Hakim Associations

  31. Grand Ayatollah Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr ► Born 1933 ► Assassinated 1980 by Hussein regime ► Founded the Islamic Movement Party ► Uncle of Muqtada al Sadr

  32. Grand Ayatollah Muhammad al Sadr ► The GA and Iraq’s spiritual leader from 1992-1999 ► Born 1933 ► Assassinated 1999 by Hussein regime (Uday) ► All public mourning services were prohibited ► Father of Muqtada al Sadr

  33. Grand Ayatollah Imam Abul Qassim al Khoei • ► GA and Iraq’s spiritual leader from 1970 to 1992 • ► GA Sistani’s and GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr’s mentor • ► Historically has been controlled by Hussein regime • ► Died of old age • Embittered and betrayed by US rejection of support • during Shi’a uprising in 1991 (reportedly his son waited • for days to see General Schwarzkopf to seek aid. The son sought exile in London.) • Son was Ayatollah Abdul Majid al Khoei • Darling of the Pentagon • Assassinated in 2003, knifed in a Najaf mosque while under US protection. Ordered by Sadr.

  34. Grand Ayatollah al Khoei Associations

  35. Ayatollah Sheikh Murtada al Burajerdi ► Assassinated in April 1998 by Hussein regime ► Serious congregational prayer leader and candidate for Grand Ayatollah

  36. Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Mirza Ali al Gharawi ► Assassinated in June 1998 by Hussein regime ► Respected religious scholar and senior spiritual leader

  37. Association Chart GA Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani ------ son---------------------Mullah Mohammed Redha Ali al Sistani son---------------------Mohammed Sayid Redha al Sistani GA Muhammed Sayid al Hakim---- nephew----------------Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim nephew----------------GA Sayid Muhammad Baqir al Hakim▲ brother----------------GA Muhsin al Hakim▲ GA Bashir Hussain al Najafi -------- son----------------------Sheikh Ali al Najafi GA Muhammad Ishaq Fayadh GA Kazim al Ha’eri-Yazdi----------$ associate------------- Muqtada al Sadr son----------------------Ayatollah Mohammed Hussain Ha’eri GA Muhsin al Hakim▲------------- - son----------------------Mohsen Hakim son----------------------- Sayed Mahdi al Hakim▲ son----------------------GA Sayid Mohammad Baqir al Hakim▲ son----------------------Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim brother----------------GA Muhammed Sayid al Hakim GA Imam Abul Qassim al Khoei▲---- son------------------Ayatollah Abdul Majid al Khoei▲ son------------------Sayed Mohammed Taqi al Khoei▲ GA Muhammad Sadiq al Sadr▲------- son------------------Muqtada al Sadr son------------------Mustafa al Sadr▲ son-----------------Mu’ammad al Sadr▲ brother-----------GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr▲ GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr▲---brother-------- GA Muhammed Sadiq al Sadr▲ nephew-------- Muqtada al Sadr GA Sayid Mohammed Baqir al Hakim▲ GA Sheikh Mirza Ali al Gharawi▲ GA Muhammad Hussein Fadallah ▲ = Dead $ = financial association

  38. Questions ?

  39. The Classification of this Presentation is….. UNCLASSIFIED Conclusions presented in this lecture are derived from independent analysis from an objective point of view with the intention to educate military personnel regarding indigenous culture. Please respect the policy of academic freedom and do not release this material publicly without prior consent.