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Construction, Testing, Documentation, and Installation Chapters 15 and 16. Info 361: Systems Analysis and Design. Key Terminology. Construction is the development of all parts of the software itself, documentation, and new operating procedures.

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construction testing documentation and installation chapters 15 and 16

Construction, Testing, Documentation, and InstallationChapters 15 and 16

Info 361: Systems Analysis and Design

key terminology
Key Terminology
  • Construction is the development of all parts of the software itself, documentation, and new operating procedures.
  • Testing is a form of insurance. It costs more to repair software bugs when people are depending on the programs than in earlier stages before the systems are in use.
  • Documentation provides information to make the system easier to use and repair.
  • Conversion is the technical process of replacing the old system with the new one. Designers select the method, timing, and location of the conversion process.

Construction and Installation

main tasks of managing the programming effort
Main Tasks of Managing the Programming Effort
  • Assigning the programmers
  • Coordinating the activities
  • Managing the schedule

Construction and Installation

the programmer paradox
The Programmer Paradox
  • After an appropriate number of people are assigned to a programming task, adding more people slows down rather than speeds up completion of the project.
  • When projects are so complex they require a large team, the best strategy is to break the project into a series of smaller parts that can function as independently as possible.

Construction and Installation

managing the schedule
Managing the Schedule
  • Use initial time estimates as a baseline
  • Revise time estimates as construction proceeds
  • Fight against scope creep
  • Monitor “minor” slippage
  • Create risk assessment and track changing risks
  • Fight the temptation to lower quality to meet unreasonable schedule demands

Construction and Installation

avoid classic mistakes
Avoid Classic Mistakes

1. Research-oriented development

If you use state-of-the art technology, lengthen planned time

2. Using “low-cost” personnel

If using a significant number of entry level personnel, lengthen planned time

3. Lack of code control

Use source code library to keep programmers from changing the same code at the same time

4. Inadequate testing

Always allocate sufficient time for formal testing

Construction and Installation

stages of testing
Stages of Testing
  • Unit testing
    • Tests each module to assure that it performs its function
  • Integration testing
    • Tests the interaction of modules to assure that they work together
  • System testing
    • Tests to assure that the software works well as part of the overall system
  • Acceptance testing
    • Tests to assure that the system serves organizational needs

Construction and Installation

error discover rates
Error Discover Rates

Construction and Installation

unit testing
Unit Testing
  • Black Box Testing
    • Focuses on whether the unit meets requirements stated in specification
  • White-Box Testing
    • Looks inside the module to test its major elements

Construction and Installation

integration testing
Integration Testing
  • User interface testing
    • Tests each interface function
  • Use-case testing
    • Ensures that each use case works correctly
  • Interaction testing
    • Tests each process in a step-by-step fashion
  • System interface testing
    • Ensures data transfer between systems

Construction and Installation

system testing
System Testing
  • Requirements Testing
    • Ensures that integration did not cause new errors
  • Usability Testing
    • Tests how easy and error-free the system is in use
  • Security Testing
    • Assures that security functions are handled properly
  • Performance Testing
    • Assures that the system works under high volumes of activity
  • Documentation Testing
    • Analysts check that documentation and examples work properly

Construction and Installation

acceptance testing
Acceptance Testing
  • Alpha Testing
    • Repeats tests by users to assure they accept the system
  • Beta Testing
    • Uses real data, not test data

Construction and Installation

user documentation
User Documentation
  • Intended to help users operate the system
  • High quality documentation takes about 3 hours per page
  • The task should not be left to the end of the project
  • Time required to develop and test user documentation should be built into project plan
  • Types of user documentation:
      • Reference documents
      • Procedures manuals
      • Tutorials
  • On-line documentation is growing in importance

Construction and Installation

implementing change
Implementing Change
  • Transitioning to new systems involves managing change from pre-existing norms and habits.
  • Change management involves:
    • Unfreezing -- loosening up peoples’ habits and norms
    • Moving -- transition from old to new systems
    • Refreezing -- institutionalize and make efficient the new way of doing things

Construction and Installation

post implementation
  • Post-implementation activities include providing:
    • System support, such as help desks
    • Systems maintenance, fixing bugs and providing improvements
    • Project assessment, learning how to improve from project experiences

Construction and Installation

migration planning
Migration Planning
  • What activities will be performed when and by whom

Construction and Installation

conversion styles
Conversion Styles
  • Direct conversion
    • The new system instantly replaces the old
  • Parallel conversion
    • For a time both old and new systems are used. The old is abandoned when the new is proven fully capable

Construction and Installation

conversion location
Conversion Location
  • Pilot conversion
    • One or more locations are converted to work out bugs before extending to other locations
  • Phased conversion
    • Locations are converted in sets
  • Simultaneous conversion
    • All locations are converted at the same time

Construction and Installation

conversion modules
Conversion Modules
  • Whole system conversion
    • All modules converted in one step
  • Modular conversion
    • When modules are loosely associated, they can be converted one at a time

Construction and Installation

conversion strategies
Conversion Strategies

Construction and Installation

selecting a conversion strategy
Selecting a Conversion Strategy
  • Risk
    • Seriousness of consequences of remaining bugs
  • Cost
    • Parallel requires paying for two systems for a period of time
    • Simultaneous requires more staff to support all locations
  • Time
    • Parallel, phased, and modular require more time

Construction and Installation

understanding resistance to change
Understanding Resistance to Change
  • What is good for the organization, is not necessarily good for the individuals who work there
  • Cost versus benefit of transition as well as of to-be system
  • Adapting to new work processes requires effort, for which there may be no additional compensation

Construction and Installation

revising management policies
No computer system will be successfully adopted unless management policies support its adoption

Management tools for supporting adoption

Standard operating procedures (SOPs)

Measurements and rewards

Resource allocation

Revising Management Policies

Construction and Installation

Every new system requires new skills

New skills may involve use of the technology itself

New skills may be needed to handle the changed business processes


Construction and Installation

institutionalization of the system
Institutionalization of the System
  • Provide support
    • Assistance in using the system
  • Provide maintenance
    • Repair or fix discovered bugs or errors
    • Add minor enhancements to provide added value
  • Assess the project
    • Analyze what was done well
    • Discover what activities need improvement in the future

Construction and Installation

sources of change requests
Sources of Change Requests

1. Problem reports from the operations group

2. Requests for enhancements from users

3. Requests from other systems development projects

4. Change requests from senior management

Construction and Installation