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PENGANTAR ROBOTIKA AK-012213. Teknik Perancangan Robot Studi Kasus pada Robot Line Follower / Maze Solver. Line Following/Maze Solving Robot. Sumber: http://andyq3lectra.wordpress.com/2009/07/29/membangun-line-follower-robot/. Robot Chassis Design. Robot chassis consists of,

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pengantar robotika ak 012213

PENGANTAR ROBOTIKAAK-012213

TeknikPerancangan Robot

StudiKasuspada Robot Line Follower / Maze Solver

line following maze solving robot
Line Following/Maze Solving Robot

Sumber: http://andyq3lectra.wordpress.com/2009/07/29/membangun-line-follower-robot/

robot chassis design
Robot Chassis Design

Robot chassis consists of,

  • Frame (ie. aluminium, acrylic)
  • Components and Mounting
    • Electronics (microcontroller, motor driver, sensors)
    • Motor (DC, Servo, Stepper)
    • Battery (NiCad, NiMH, Lithium, LiPo, Dry Cell)
    • Wheel
wheel selection
Wheel Selection
  • Wheel diameter
  • Wheel texture
  • Wheel width
  • Wheel center hole diameter
  • Wheel mounting techniques
motor selection
Motor Selection
  • DC Motor
  • Servo Motor
  • Stepper Motor
  • Common properties of motors
    • Rotation Per Minute (RPM)
    • Torque
    • Operational voltage
motor driver
Motor Driver
  • Consists of H-bridge to control the motor
  • Properties of motor driver
    • Voltage
    • Current
    • Direction
    • Braking system
robot dynamics
Robot Dynamics

Velocity = circumference * rpm Velocity = diameter * pi * rpm

Velocity = 2 * radius * pi * rpm

For example, if your motor has a rotation speed (under load) of 100rpm (determined by looking up the motor part number online) and you want to travel at 3 feet per second, calculate:

3 ft/s = diameter * pi * 100rpm 3 ft/s = diameter * pi * 1.67rps (rotations per second) diameter = 3 ft/s / (3.14 * 1.67 rps) diameter = 0.57 ft, or 6.89"

robot dynamics1
Robot Dynamics

You probably noticed that the larger the diameter of the wheel, or higher the rpm, the faster your robot will go. But this isn't entirely true in that there is another factor involved. If your robot requires more torque than it can give, it will go slower than you calculated. Heavier robots will go slower. Now what you need to do is compare the motor torque, your robot acceleration, and wheel diameter. These three attributes will have to be balanced to achieve proper torque.

Torque = Distance * Force Distance = Wheel Radius Force = Torque / Wheel Radius

calculating wheel diameter
Calculating Wheel Diameter

velocity = diameter * pi * rps

diameter = velocity / (pi * rps)

Example:

3 ft/s / (pi * 2/s) = wheel diameter = .48 feet = 5.73"

acceleration
Acceleration

There is one other factor to consider when choosing acceleration. If your robot is going up inclines or through rough terrain, you will need a higher acceleration due to countering gravity. If say your robot was going straight up a wall, you would require an additional 9.81 m/s^2 (32 ft/s^2) acceleration to counteract. A typical 20 degree incline (as shown) would require 11 ft/s^2.

Force = Mass * Acceleration

How do you calculate how much additional acceleration you would need for a specific incline?

acceleration for inclines = 32 ft/s^2 * sin((angle_of_incline * pi) / 180)

gearbox
Gearbox
  • A transmission or gearbox provides speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device using gear ratios.
sensor selection photo detector
Sensor Selection (photo detector)
  • Photo-diode
  • Photo-transistor
  • Photo-resistor (LDR)
microcontroller
Microcontroller
  • Properties of microcontroller:
    • Clock frequency
    • Memory capacity
    • Types and Number of I/O ports
  • Popular microcontroller family: AVR, PIC