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  1. Advanced Information Storage 17 Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics 17:00 02/December/2013 Monday (AEW 105)

  2. Quick Review over the Last Lecture Cache and register : • Cache to overcome the von Neumann bottleneck : • Access speed : Processor ≫ memories * http://withfriendship.com/user/levis/processor-register.php

  3. 17 Other Memory Concepts • Millipede • Nano-RAM • Floating junction gate • Hybrid memory cube • I / O interfaces

  4. Millipede Memory In 2002, Gerd Binnig (IBM) proposed a millipede memory : * • Arrayed AFM tips (1,024) for read / write • Bit to be recorded as a nanometre-sized indentation by a heated tip • Bit to be erased by a heated tip • Bit to be read by a tip * http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/IBMs_Millipede_Memory_Chip

  5. Further Improvement In 2005, an improved millipede memory was announced : * • 64 × 64 cantilever array • 7 mm × 7 mm data sled • 800 Gbit / inch 2 • 10 nm indented bits • Theoretically > 1 Tbit / inch 2 • Slow access speed • Mechanical parts * http://nanotechweb.org/cws/article/tech/36334

  6. Nano-RAM (NRAM) In 2001, Nantero was founded to fabricate nano-RAM (NRAM) : * * http://www.wikipedia.org/

  7. Floating Junction Gate Floating junction gate (FJG) random access memory was invented by Oriental Semiconductor in 2013 : * * http://www.wikipedia.org/

  8. Hybrid Memory Cube Micron and Samsung formed consortium to develop a new 3D architecture : * • 3D memory arrays • TSV (through-Silicon via) • → Memory chip fabricated on an interface logic between a CPU / GPU and memory controller • Large band width (interface speed : × 15 as compared with DDR3 • Low power consumption : - 70 % as compared with DDR3 • Area : - 90 % as compared with RDIMM * http://japanese.engadget.com/2013/04/03/dram-hmc-1-0/

  9. Electrically-Induced Phase Changes Universities of Chiba and Karlsruhe jointly demonstrated Fe atomic structures can be transformed between bcc and fcc by applying an electric field using a STM tip : * * http://archive.wiredvision.co.jp/blog/yamaji/201012/201012241431.html

  10. Semiconducting Mechanical Resonator NTT developed a mechanical resonator for logic circuits : * Input B (frequency : fB) Electrode B Electrode A Mechanical resonator Electrical input Input A (frequency : fA) Mechanical resonance Electrode C Different electrical output • 0.1 pW / resonator • Low power consumption : • Current CPU : ~ 10 W • Resonator : ~ 10 μW Output A and B (fC) Output A or B (fD) time “1” : resonance / “0” : no signal * http://archive.wiredvision.co.jp/blog/yamaji/201103/201103241931.html

  11. Logic Operations Logic operations : * Input : A and B Input : B Output Intensity Input : A Input : none Output Frequency * http://archive.wiredvision.co.jp/blog/yamaji/201103/201103241931.html

  12. Quasi-Liquid Memory Gel / liquid memrister was demonstrated by North Carolina State University : * * H.-J. Koo et al., Adv. Mater.23, 3559 (2011).

  13. Categories of Input / Output Interfaces Memories engaging through input / output (I/O) interfaces can be categorised : * • Human readable : • Suitable for communicating with the computer user • Examples : printers, terminals, video display, keyboard, mouse • Machine readable : • Suitable for communicating with electronic equipment • Examples : disk drives, USB keys, sensors, controllers • Communications : • Suitable for communicating with remote devices • Examples : modems, digital line drivers * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling

  14. Organisation of I / O Functions I/O technologies can be categorised : * • Prorgrammed I/O : • The processor issues an I/O command on behalf of a process to an I/O module. • That process then becomes busy and waits for the operation to be completed before proceeding. • Interrupt-driven I/O : • The processor issues an I/O command on behalf of a process. • If non-blocking – processor continues to execute instructions from the process that issued the I/O command. • If blocking – the next instruction the processor executes is from the OS, which will put the current process in a blocked state and schedule another process. • Direct memory access (DMA) : • A DMA module controls the exchange of data between main memory and an I/O module. * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling

  15. Evolution of I / O Functions * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling

  16. DMA Alternative Configurations * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling

  17. Model of I / O Organisations * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling

  18. Buffering Buffering is used to smooth out peaks in I/O requests : * • Block-oriented devices : • Stores information in blocks that are usually of fixed size • Transfers are made one block at a time • Possible to reference data by its block number • Disks and USB keys are examples • Stream-oriented devices : • Transfers data in and out as a stream of bytes • No block structure • Terminals, printers, communications ports, and most other devices that are not secondary storage are examples * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling

  19. Types of Buffering Without buffering, an operating system (OS) directly sees the device : * Single buffer, the OS assigns the buffer in a main memory for I/O requests : * * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling

  20. Timing of I / O Requests Typical I/O transfer depends on : * * http://www.docstoc.com/docs/120963914/Chapter-11-IO-Management-and-Disk-Scheduling