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the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) and Its Applications in north America. Ming-Liang Liu ( [email protected] ) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, WSU, Pullman, WA Prior Institute: International Center for Climate and Global Change Research

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the dynamic land ecosystem model dlem and its applications in north america
the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) and Its Applications in north America

Ming-Liang Liu ([email protected])

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, WSU, Pullman, WA

Prior Institute:

International Center for Climate and Global Change Research

Ecosystem Dynamics and Global Ecology Laboratory

Auburn University, Auburn, AL

October 14, 2011

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Hanqin TIAN
  • Chi ZHANG
  • Guangsheng CHEN
  • Chaoquan LU
  • Wei REN
  • Xiaofeng XU
  • Jia YANG
  • Supported by NASA IDS, NASA LCLUC, DOE NICCR
outline
Outline
  • Model Introduction – Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM)
  • Recent Improvements
  • Validations
  • Applications
  • Discussions
introduction
Introduction
  • Regional Earth System Model

http://www.pnnl.gov/atmospheric/iresm/modeling.stm

model dlem
Model (DLEM)

Chen et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2008; Ren et al., 2007a; Ren et al., 2007b; Ren et al., 2011b; Tian et al., 2011; Tian et al., 2010a; Tian et al., 2010b; Tian et al., 2010c; Xu et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2007

slide7
INPUT

MODEL

OUTPUT

Climate

.Temperature

.Precipitation

.Radiation

.Relative Humidity

Atmospheric Compositions

.CO2

.O3

.Nitrogen Deposition

Land Use

.Deforestation

.Urbanization

.Harvest

.Fertilization

.Irrigation

Other Disturbances

.Wildfire

.Disease

.Climate Extremes

CO2 Related:

.Carbon Storage

.Harvest

.Ecosystem Respiration

.Net Primary Productivity

.Net Ecosystem Exchange

.Export of DOC and POC

Driving Factors

Non-CO2 GHG;

.CH4 Emissions

.N2O Emissions

Dynamic

Land

Ecosystem

Model

Water Related;

.Surface Runoff

.Subsurface Flow

.Evapotranspiration

.Soil Moisture

.River Discharge

Soil

.Physical Properties

.Chemical Properties

.Depth

Geomorphology

.Elevation

.Slope

.Aspect

River Network

.Flow Direction

.Accumulative Area

.River Slope

.River Length

.River Width

Vegetation Functional Type

Cropping System

Controlling Factors

Nitrogen Related:

.Nitrogen Storage

.Mineralization Rate

.Nitrofication Rate

.Denitrification Rate

.Export of TN

improvements
Improvements
  • From single land cover to cohort structure
  • Rainfall disaggregation
  • Multi-soil layer, TOPMOD, Ground water - CLM methods
  • River routine
slide9
From single land cover to cohort structure

vegetation cover, impervious surface, lake, stream, sea, bare ground, and glacier

slide10
Rainfall disaggregation

Sivakumar & Sharma, 2008

Connolly et al., 1998

slide11
Multi-soil layer, TOPMOD, Ground water - CLM methods

Liu et al., 2008

Niu et al., 2007, 2009

Beven & Kirkby, 1979

slide12
Precipitation

Rain

Snow

Sublimation

Canopy Evaporation

Water-surface Evaporation

Evaporation

Liquid

Snow

Interception

Impervious surface

Water body

(lake, stream)

Surface

Runoff

Canopy

(1, 2, …n types)

Discharge

Transpiration

Sublimation

Throughfall

Soil Evaporation

Water Uptake

Surface Runoff

Melt

Snow cover

Infiltration

Saturated area

Zone of aeration

Redistribution

Recharge

Water Table

Zone of saturation

Soil

Recharge

Aquifer

Drainage Runoff

Hydrological processes simulated by DLEM

validations
Validations
  • Field observations, e.g. AmeriFlux network
  • River gauges
  • Model-data fusion data sets, e.g. up-scaled observations
  • Other regional model results
slide16
Model Validations

Distributions of AmeriFlux towers for model validation

validations1
Validations

Comparison of simulated discharges with reconstructed historical discharge and USGS observations (MARB)

The comparison of simulated ET vs observations

slide18
Rosemount G19 Alternative Rotations (cropland)

Missouri Ozark (Deciduous Broad-leaf Forest)

slide20
Connecticut

Hudson

Delaware

slide21
Susquehanna

Potmac

James

verification of c n export
Verification of C&N export

DIN export from Mississippi river basin

applications
Applications
  • The Gulf of Mexico
  • The Eastern Coast
slide25
Data
  • DEM, slope: HRDRO1K data sets
  • Lake, river fractional data: SRTM-Water Body Data; GLC2000; Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)
  • Soil data: ISRIC-WISE derived soil properties with 5×5 arc-minute resolution
  • Climate: North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data from NCEP
  • River networks: 5 arc-minute global river networks (Graham et al., WRR, 1999)
slide26
Study area and land cover in 2005 (land cover shows the dominant type in each 5 arc-minute grid)

Sub-basins: EC: East Coast of GOM; MARB: Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin; TB: Texas Basin; RGB: Rio Grande Basin; WSC: Western and Southern Coast of GOM

slide27
Land use conversions during 1901-2005

(The different color shows the dominant conversion in each 5 arc-minute grid and total change is larger than 5% of grid area)

eastern coast
Eastern coast

Eastern Coast Study Area

land use land cover
Land-use/land-cover

Land use, 2005

Land use conversions, 1901-2005

climate change
Climate change

% per Century of precipitation

°C per Century

Trend in annual temperature and precipitation, 1901-2008

spatial pattern of runoff
Spatial pattern of runoff

Mean annual runoff, 1901-2008 (mm/year)

Trend in annual runoff, 1901-2008 (% per Century)

toc yield and trend
TOC yield and trend

Mean TOC yield, 1901-2008 (gC/m2/year)

Trend in TOC yield, 1901-2008 (gC/m2/year/year)

total nitrogen yield and trend
Total nitrogen yield and trend

Mean TN yield, 1901-2008 (gN/m2/year)

Trend in TN yield, 1901-2008 (gN/m2/year/year)

driving forces on tn export
Driving forces - on TN export

Estimated anomaly of TN export under different simulation experiments

other applications
Other applications
  • NACP – Site and regional model-data comparison
  • North America GHG emissions
  • Southeast of US
  • China GHG budget
  • Monsoon Asia
  • Global
slide47
The annual mean leaching and exports of nutrients from land surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE)

A. TN leaching from inland watershed (gN/m2/year)

B. TN export from each 0.5° ×0.5° grid to downstream grid (Metric ton N/grid)

C. TOC leaching from inland watershed (gC/m2/year)

D. TOC export from each 0.5° ×0.5° grid to downstream grid (Metric ton C/grid)

slide49
NEE Seasonal cycle (Howland)

Image credit: Dan Ricciuto

Preliminary results of model-data Inter-comparison for the NACP Site-Level Interim Synthesis

  • Peter Thornton, Kevin Schaefer
  • NACP Synthesis Management Team
  • Ameriflux and Fluxnet Canada Investigators
  • Modeling Team Investigators
  • Dan Riccuito, Barbara Jackson
slide50
Inverse Models

Forward Models

Net Ecosystem Exchange

Temperate North America

Regional Interim SynthesisBreakout Discussion ReportNACP Interim Synthesis WorkshopOak Ridge, TN, November 9-11, 2009

  • By W. Mac Post
discussions
Discussions
  • Coupling with water quality model and regional climate model
  • Social-economic data/model
  • Model-data fusion
  • Super computer technology
slide52
CO2,s

O2,s

N2,S

NH3,s

H2CO3*

(M/L)

HCO3-

(M/L)

CO32-

(M/L)

photosynthesis

O2

R

P

hydrolysis

NH3

ana

N uptake

Den..

POC & PON

CpNp

(g(C,N)/m3)

excr

Phytoplankton

a (mg Chla/m3)

Nitri.

acdnc

N2

NO2-

NH4+

NO3-

Nitri.

egestion

Den..

dissolution

1-εh

εh

aca

DOC & DON

Cd Nd

(g(C,N)/m3)

R

excr

Herb. Zooplancton

Zh (g(C,N)/m3

azhnc

egestion

1-εc

εc

LEGEND

R

excr/death

Nitrogen (N) flux

Carn. Zooplancton

Zc (g(C,N)/m3)

Oxygen (O) flux

settling

azcnc

Carbon (C) flux

C&N flux

Chemical equilibrium

Sediments

slide53
http://www.yearofplenty.org/2010/10/index.html

THANK YOU!

http://hill.chem.wsu.edu/PhotoGallery/Pullman

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