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Final Review Commercial. Power Plants. Carburetor Heat Mixture. Fuel Injection. Auxiliary Fuel Pump Fuel Flow Indicator Vapor Lock Exhaust Gas Temperature Cylinder Head Temperature. Mixture. Best Economy Mixture Best Power Mixture. Abnormal Combustion. Preignition Detonation.

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power plants
Power Plants
  • Carburetor Heat
  • Mixture
fuel injection
Fuel Injection
  • Auxiliary Fuel Pump
  • Fuel Flow Indicator
  • Vapor Lock
  • Exhaust Gas Temperature
  • Cylinder Head Temperature
  • Best Economy Mixture
  • Best Power Mixture
abnormal combustion
Abnormal Combustion
  • Preignition
  • Detonation
turbocharging systems
Turbocharging Systems
  • Manifold Pressure Gauge
  • Critical Altitude
  • Service Ceiling
  • Overboost
constant speed propellers
Constant Speed Propellers
  • Blade Angle
  • Pitch Angle
  • Governing Range
  • Propeller Control
  • Efficiency
oxygen systems
Oxygen Systems
  • Continuous Flow
  • Diluter Demand
  • Pressure Demand
oxygen masks
Oxygen Masks
  • Oronasal Rebreather
    • Color Coded Red Pilot
  • Quick Donning
    • Diluter Demand
    • Pressure Demand
oxygen service
Oxygen Service
  • Aviator Breathing Oxygen
  • Oxygen Duration Charts
  • FBO
  • Never deplete below 50 psi
  • Outflow Valve
  • Safety/dump Valve
  • Isobaric Range
  • Differential Range
oxygen requirements
Oxygen Requirements
  • Part 91
    • 12,500 to 14,000 over 30 minutes
    • 14,000 for crew members
    • 15,000 for passengers
human factors
Human Factors
  • Hypoxia
  • Hyperventilation
ice control systems
Ice Control Systems
  • Anti-icing
  • De-icing
landing gear systems
Landing Gear Systems
  • Electrical Gear Systems
  • Hydraulic Gear Systems
  • Electrohydraulic Systems
emergency extension
Emergency Extension
  • Hand Crank
  • Hand Pump Hydraulic System
  • Freefall System
  • Carbon dioxide pressurized system
fundamental flight maneuvers
Fundamental Flight Maneuvers
  • Straight and Level
  • Turns
  • Climbs
  • Descents
four aerodynamic forces
Four Aerodynamic Forces
  • Lift
  • Thrust
  • Drag
  • Weight
  • When are they in equilibrium?
bernoulli s principle
Bernoulli’s Principle
  • As the velocity of a fluid increase, its internal pressure decreases
  • High pressure under the wing and lower pressure above the wing’s surface
controlling lift
Controlling Lift
  • Increase airspeed
  • Change the angle of attack
  • Change the shape of the airfoil
  • Change the total area of the wings
angle of attack
Angle of Attack
  • Directly controls the distribution of pressure acting on a wing. By changing the angle of attack, you can control the airplane’s lift, airspeed and drag.
angle of attack1
Angle of Attack
  • Angle of attack at which a wing stalls remains constant regardless of weight, dynamic pressure, bank angle or pitch attitude.
  • Plain
  • Split
  • Slotted
  • Fowler
ground effect
Ground Effect
  • Within one wingspan of the ground
  • An airplane leaving ground effect will experience an increase in what kind of drag?
  • What kind of drags rate of increase is proportional to the square of the airspeed?
  • Parasite Drag
  • What kinds of drag make up parasite Drag
load factor
Load Factor
  • Ratio between the lift generated by the wings at any given time divided by the total weight of the airplane.
load factor1
Load Factor
  • A heavily loaded plane stalls at a higher speed than a lightly loaded airplane.
  • It needs a higher angle of attack to generate required lift at any given speed than when lightly loaded.
aircraft stability
Aircraft Stability
  • Achieved by locating the center of gravity slightly ahead of the center of lift
  • Need a tail down force on the elevator
  • The horizontal component of lift.
  • Load Factor and Turns
  • The relationship between angle of bank , load factor, and stall speed is the same for all airplanes
density altitude
Density Altitude
  • High
  • Hot
  • Humid
surface winds
Surface Winds
  • Headwind or tailwind component
    • a 10 knot headwind might improve performance by 10%
    • a 10 knot tailwind might degrade performance by 40%
performance charts
Performance Charts
  • Experience Test Pilots
  • Factory new Airplanes
  • Repeated Tests using Best Results
  • Format -Table -Graphic
cruise charts
Cruise Charts
  • Range is the distance an airplane can travel with a given amount of fuel
  • Endurance is the length of time the airplane can remain in the air
cruise charts1
Cruise Charts
  • Maximum range is at L/Dmax or best glide speed
  • Maximum endurance is about 76% or best glide speed
  • Generally close to stall speed
excessive weight
Excessive Weight
  • Higher takeoff speed
  • Longer takeoff run
  • Reduced rate and angle of climb
  • Lower maximum altitude
excessive weight1
Excessive Weight
  • Shorter range and endurance
  • Reduced cruise speed and maneuverability
  • Higher stall speed
  • Higher landing speed and longer landing roll
forward cg effects
Forward CG Effects
  • Higher takeoff speed and ground roll
  • Reduced rate and angle of climb
  • Lower maximum altitude
  • Reduced maneuverability
forward cg effects1
Forward CG Effects
  • Higher stalling speed
  • Reduction in performance caused by increased tail-down loading
  • Reduced pitch authority
beyond aft cg effects
Beyond Aft CG Effects
  • Decreased stability and increased susceptibility to over control
  • Increased risk of stalls and spins of which recovery may be difficult or impossible
weight shift computations
Weight Shift Computations

Weight of Cargo Moved Distance CG moves

Airplane weight = Distance Between Arm locations

  • Frequency 121.5 and 243.0
  • Battery
    • 1 hour of cumulative use
    • One half the battery useful life
  • Test during 5 minutes after the hour
diverting for emergencies
Diverting for Emergencies
  • Time is of the essence
  • Turn to new course as soon as possible
  • Use rule of thumb computations, estimates and shortcuts
engine temperature
Engine Temperature
  • Oil cools the internal portion of the engine
  • High temperature is often a sign of low oil level
heating system
Heating System
  • Heating in most aircraft is by exhaust manifold-type
  • Crack in the system can allow carbon monoxide into the cabin
  • If your aircraft backfires during run up, have it checked
engine failure takeoff
Engine Failure(Takeoff)
  • Lower the nose and maintain a safe airspeed
  • Slow to maneuvering speed
  • Maintain a level attitude
  • Do not chase the pitot static instruments
spatial disorientation
Spatial Disorientation
  • Rely on instrument indications
  • Ignore body sensations
emergency descent
Emergency Descent
  • Reduce the throttle to idle
  • Roll into a bank angle of approximately 30-45 degrees
  • Set propeller to low pitch ( High RPM)
emergency descent1
Emergency Descent
  • Extend landing gear and Flap as recommended by the manufacturer
  • Do not exceed VNE, VLE, VFE, or VA if turbulent
best glide speed
Best Glide Speed
  • Gear and Flaps retracted
  • Propeller to low RPM (High Pitch)
  • Pitch
  • Trim
best glide speed1
Best Glide Speed
  • Checklist
  • Any deviation from the best glide speed will reduce the distance you can glide
lost procedures
Lost Procedures
  • Climb
  • Communicate
  • Confess
  • Comply
  • Conserve
lost procedures1
Lost Procedures
  • Radar
  • DF Steer
  • Emergency Frequency 121.5
  • Objective - Knowledge of elements
  • Positive and accurate control of aircraft with shortest ground roll and steepest angle of climb
  • Proper airspeeds VR, VX, and VY
    • Maintain VX =5/-0 KTS
  • After clearing the obstacle accelerate to VY +5/-5
  • Retract the landing gear and flaps after a positive rate of climb or as recommended
common takeoff errors
Common Takeoff Errors
  • Failure to use the entire runway
  • Improper positioning of the flight controls and wing flaps
  • Improper engine operation during short field takeoff and climb out
common takeoff errors1
Common Takeoff Errors
  • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle
  • Poor directional control
  • Improper use of brakes
short field landing
Short Field Landing
  • Consider the wind conditions, landing surface and obstructions
    • Height of obstructions dictate how steep the approach will have to be
short field landing1
Short Field Landing
  • Descent angle will be steeper than a normal approach. Aim point will be closer to the obstacle
  • Aim point will be short of the touchdown point
  • Select a go around point, normally before descending below barriers
common errors
Common Errors
  • Improper use of landing performance data and limitations
  • Failure to establish approach landing configuration at appropriate time or in proper sequence
common errors1
Common Errors
  • Failure to maintain a stabilized approach
  • Improper technique in use of power, wing flaps and trim
common errors2
Common Errors
  • Improper removal of hand from throttle
  • Improper technique during round out and touchdown
common errors3
Common Errors
  • Poor directional control after touchdown
  • Improper use of brakes
common errors4
Common Errors
  • Improper initial positioning of the flight controls or wing flaps
  • Allowing the airplane to stop on the takeoff surface prior to initiating takeoff
  • Improper power application
common errors5
Common Errors
  • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle
  • Poor directional control
common errors6
Common Errors
  • Improper use of brakes
  • Improper pitch attitude during liftoff
    • Dragging tail of aircraft on ground
common errors7
Common Errors
    • Settling back to the runway because of too high or too low a pitch attitude
  • Failure to establish and maintain proper climb configuration and airspeed
  • Drift during climbout
soft field landing
Soft Field Landing
  • Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing
  • Touch down softly, with no drift, and with the longitudinal axis aligned with the runway
soft field landing1
Soft Field Landing
  • Maintain some power to assist in making a soft touchdown
  • Hold it off to slow airspeed and establish a nose high pitch attitude
soft field landing2
Soft Field Landing
    • After touchdown maintain back pressure to keep the nose wheel off the ground
    • Maintain full back pressure
  • Maintain after landing proper position of the flight controls and taxi speed
common errors8
Common Errors
  • Improper technique in use of power, wing flaps and trim
  • Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle
  • Improper technique during roundout and touchdown
common errors9
Common Errors
  • Failure to hold back elevator pressure after touchdown
  • Closing the throttle too soon after touchdown
common errors10
Common Errors
  • Poor directional control after touchdown
  • Improper use of brakes
enter steep turn
Enter Steep Turn
  • Heading toward reference point roll into a coordinated turn with an angle of bank of 50o +5/-5
  • As the turn begins, add back pressure to increase the angle of attack
enter steep turn1
Enter Steep Turn
  • As you go through 30o, add power if necessary to maintain entry altitude and airspeed
enter steep turn2
Enter Steep Turn
  • Trim to relieve excess control pressure
  • Begin rollout one half the angle of bank 20-25 degrees before your reference point
  • Look and clear before all turns.
To recover from an excessive nose-low attitude reduce the angle of bank
  • Add back elevator pressure to raise the nose
  • Reestablish the desire angle of bank
maintain altitude 100
Maintain Altitude +100
  • Maintain entry altitude and airspeed throughout the entire maneuver
  • During rollout release the back pressure or if using trim apply
common errors11
Common Errors
  • Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination during entry and rollout
  • Uncoordinated use of the flight controls
common errors12
Common Errors
  • Inappropriate control applications
  • Improper technique in correcting altitude deviations
  • Loss or orientation
common errors13
Common Errors
  • Excessive deviation from desired heading during rollout
  • FAA requires the maneuver be performed no lower than 1,500 ft AGL
  • Pick an altitude that is easy to identify on your altimeter
  • Establish but do not exceed 30o angle of bank
  • Enter using a smooth coordinated level turn
apply power and pitch
Apply Power and Pitch
  • After establishing a level 30o banked turn start a climbing turn by applying back elevator pressure to attain the highest pitch attitude at the 90o point
common errors14
Common Errors
  • Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination during entry or completion
    • Pitch up too fast will cause a stall
    • Pitch too slow or allow the pitch to decrease will cause you to reach 180o point at too high an airspeed
common errors15
Common Errors
  • Adjust power prior to the maneuver to establish cruise flight and increase after bank is established and as pitch is being increased
  • No other power changes are made
common errors16
Common Errors
  • Uncoordinated use of flight controls
    • Maintain coordinated flight
    • Compensate for torque and aileron drag
    • Check the ball in the inclinometer
common errors17
Common Errors
  • Improper planning and timing of pitch and bank attitude changes
    • During the first 90o of turn the bank is constant
    • At the 90o point you should have reached the maximum pitch
common errors18
Common Errors
  • During the second 90o, pitch attitude remains constant and the bank is slowly reduced
  • At the 180o point, the pitch attitude is constant and the roll out to wings level is completed
common errors19
Common Errors
    • Plan and time the pitch and bank changes while dividing you attention
  • Factors related to failure to achieve maximum performance
    • Improper pitch
    • Improper bank
  • Lazy eights require smooth coordinated use of the flight controls
    • At no time are you straight and level
    • Maneuver requires constantly changing control pressure
plan orient and maneuver
Plan,Orient and Maneuver

At 45o

Altitude Increasing

Airspeed Decreasing

Pitch Attitude Maximum

Bank Angle 15o

plan orient and maneuver1
Plan,Orient and Maneuver

At 90o

Altitude Maximum

Airspeed Minimum

Pitch Attitude Level

Bank Angle 30o

plan orient and maneuver2
Plan,Orient and Maneuver

At 135o

Altitude Decreasing

Airspeed Increasing

Pitch Attitude Minimum

Bank Angle 15o

plan orient and maneuver3
Plan,Orient and Maneuver

At 180o

Altitude Entry

Airspeed Entry

Pitch Attitude Level

Bank Angle 0o

common errors20
Common Errors
  • Poor selection of reference points
    • Easily identified
    • Not too close
  • Uncoordinated use of the flight controls
common errors21
Common Errors
    • Maintain coordinated flight
    • Compensate for torque
    • Check inclinometer
  • Unsymmetrical loops from poor pitch and bank attitude changes
common errors22
Common Errors
    • Stalling before reaching the 90o point
    • Excessive diving
    • Rushing the angle of bank
  • Inconsistent airspeed and/or altitude at key points
common errors23
Common Errors
  • Adjust power after the first maneuver if off entry airspeed or altitude Loss of orientation. Need to observe your reference point as well as your attitude indicator, altimeter and airspeed indicator
common errors24
Common Errors
  • Excessive deviation from reference points
    • Each 45o segment must be preplanned and the proper pitch and bank attained
  • At a given groundspeed there is an associated altitude at which the airplane will appear to pivot about the point and is called the pivotal altitude
  • The higher the groundspeed the higher the pivotal altitude
  • In strong wind, altitude changes will be greater e.g. 100 to 200 feet
  • In light wind, altitude changes will be smaller e.g. 50 to 100 feet
  • Wind calm means no change to pivotal altitude
determine the pivotal altitude
Determine the Pivotal Altitude
  • To determine the pivotal altitude fly at an altitude well above the pivotal altitude then reduce power and descend at cruise airspeed in a medium bank turn.
determine the pivotal altitude1
Determine the Pivotal Altitude
  • The reference line will move back until the pivotal altitude is reached. If you continue to descend the reference line will move forward
  • You can estimate the pivotal altitude by using the following formula
determine the pivotal altitude2
Determine the Pivotal Altitude

(Groundspeed in knots)2 = Pivotal Altitude


1002= 885


perform the maneuver
Perform the Maneuver
  • As you turn into the wind the groundspeed decreases causing the pivotal altitude to decrease causing you to descend to maintain the pivotal altitude
orientation and planning
Orientation and Planning
  • Remain oriented on the location of the pylons and the direction of the wind
  • Plan ahead
  • Divide your attention between coordinated airplane control and outside visual reference
use pivotal altitude
Use Pivotal Altitude
  • Do not use rudder to force the reference line forward or backward to the pylon
common errors25
Common Errors
  • Faulty Entry technique
    • Poor planning
    • Not being at pivotal altitude
    • Rolling into a bank too soon
  • Poor Planning, Orientation and Division of Attention
common errors26
Common Errors
  • Lack of anticipation of changes in groundspeed
  • Poor pylon selection
  • Poor division of attention. Uncoordinated flight control applications and not looking out for other traffic
common errors27
Common Errors
  • Uncoordinated flight control application
  • Use of improper line of sight reference
  • Application of rudder alone to maintain line of sight on pylon
    • Most Common Error
common errors28
Common Errors
    • Do not Yaw the wing backward with rudder if the reference line is ahead of the pylon
  • Improper timing of turn entries and rollouts
    • Usually do to poor planning
common errors29
Common Errors
  • Rollout needs to be timed to allow the airplane to proceed diagonally to a point downwind of the second pylon
common errors30
Common Errors
  • Improper correction for wind between pylons
  • Selection of pylons where there is no suitable force landing area within gliding distance
  • Large pitch and airspeed changes