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Excreta and Household Wastewaters - Introduction. Global Water, Sanitation and Hygiene ENVR 890 Section 003 ENVR 296 Section 003 Mark D. Sobsey February, 2006. Household Human Wastes and Wastewaters. Excreta and Graywater– Definitions and Properties. Excreta: Human feces and urine

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excreta and household wastewaters introduction

Excreta and Household Wastewaters - Introduction

Global Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

ENVR 890 Section 003

ENVR 296 Section 003

Mark D. Sobsey

February, 2006

excreta and graywater definitions and properties
Excreta and Graywater– Definitions and Properties

Excreta: Human feces and urine

Managed in different ways:

Direct disposal on land or in water

Direct use as fertilizer, soil conditioner and for aquaculture

Pre-treatment prior to use

Dilution with water to convey (sewage) for disposal or use

Direct use of untreated (raw) sewage

Treatment and discharge to land or water

Treatment and reuse (agriculture, aquaculture, horticulture, industrial and civil use

Graywater: Other wastewater from human activity

Not directly from human fecs and urine

Wastewater from washing, bathing, etc

Contains human wastes and exudates

managing human excreta options
Managing Human Excreta - Options
  • “Dry” Collection:
    • Open defecation
    • Collect in a container
      • e.g., chamber pot
    • Discharge to the environment w/ or w/o Rx
      • Latrines – several kinds
    • Treat or dispose of or both
    • Separate feces and urine;
      • Then, treat/store, use, dispose to the environment
managing human excreta options5
Managing Human Excreta - Options
  • Semi-wet (or semi-dry)
  • Use some water
  • Pour-flush toilets and other low water use systems
managing human excreta options6
Managing Human Excreta - Options
  • Wet Systems
    • On-site Septic Systems
    • Other On-site systems
      • Soak pits
    • Sewerage
    • Sewage treatment systems
human excreta resource or risk
Human Excreta – Resource or Risk?
  • Human excreta as a potential resource
  • Contains nutrients (N, P, K, and organic matter)
  • Nutrients and organic matter are:
    • Detrimental in water, esp. surface water
      • Eutrophication, anoxia, fish kills
  • Beneficial on land
    • Fertilizer, soil conditioner, land stabilizer
  • Widely used as a fertilizer and soil amendment in both developed and developing countries
  • Potential for excreta misuse and environmental pollution is great without proper attention to management plans and human behavior considerations

Annual Amounts/Person, Kg

nutrient content of human excreta
Nutrient Content of Human Excreta
  • Rich source of inorganic plant nutrients: N, P K and organic matter
  • Daily human excretion: ~30 g of C (90 g of organic matter), ~ 10-12 g N, ~ 2 g of P and 3 g of K.
  • Most organic matter in feces most N and P (70-80 %) in urine. K equally distributed between urine and feces.
composition of household waste and wastewater
14.1

12.3

5.3

3.6

K

Organics

kg COD/ (Person·year)

P

N

1.0

0.8

Nutrient content

kg N,P,K / (Person·year)

Composition of Household Waste and Wastewater

10.000 – 200.000 l

50 l

500 l

source: Otterpohl

Volume

Liter / (Person·year)

greywater urine faeces

characteristics of human wastes
Characteristics of Human Wastes

fraction

characteristic

1. feces

  • hygienically critical (high risk)
  • consists of organics, nutrients and trace elements
  • improves soil quality and increase its water retention capacity

2. urine

  • less hygienically critical (less risk)
  • contains the largest proportion of nutrients available to plants
  • may contain hormones or medical residues

3. greywater

  • of no major (or less) hygienic concern/risk
  • volumetrically the largest portion of wastewater
  • contains almost no (or less) nutrients (simpler treatment)
  • may contain spent washing powders etc.
options for excreta and greywater utilization
urine

(yellowwater)

greywater

(shower,

washing, etc.)

faeces

(brownwater)

hygienisation by

storage or

drying

constructedwetlands, gardening,

wastewater ponds, biol.treatment, membrane-technology

anaerobic

digestion,

drying,

composting

liquid or dry

fertiliser

biogas,

soil

improvement

irrigation,

groundwater-

recharge or

direct reuse

Options for Excreta and Greywater Utilization

substances

treatment

utilisation

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