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Land Survival. Developed as part of the National Emergency Services Curriculum Project. Survival Needs. Food Water Shelter Positive Mental Attitude. Food. Most healthy people can go without for a week to 10 days, depending on the conditions

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Land survival l.jpg

Land Survival

Developed as part of the National Emergency Services Curriculum Project


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Survival Needs

  • Food

  • Water

  • Shelter

  • Positive Mental Attitude


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Food

  • Most healthy people can go without for a week to 10 days, depending on the conditions

  • Ground Team Members should be carrying at least a few meals when they go out, and normally don’t use them


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Water

  • Can go without for only a few days at most, depending again on the conditions

  • Personnel require greater amounts of water in warmer climates

  • Personnel actually working will require more water than those sitting idle


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Water Purification

  • If stuck in the field for a longer period, team members may need to gather and purify water if they don’t have enough

  • Several methods are available to purify water in the field

    • Boiling (ten minutes)

    • Improvised or Commercial Filters

    • Chemicals (iodine based tablets normally)




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Filtration

Filter made from trouser leg

Hanging Filtration

Filtration Tri-pod

Commercial Filter


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Shelter

  • The type of shelter required depends on current conditions and clothing being worn by survivor

    • Needs to meet the user’s needs for the duration expected

    • Can use materials readily available in the wilderness or equipment packed into the field

      • Refer to discussions in Campsite Selection lecture for additional information


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Poncho Shelters

  • It takes only a short time and minimal equipment to make a shelter from a poncho.

  • You need a poncho, 2 to 3 meters of rope or parachute suspension line, three stakes about 30 centimeters long, and two trees or two poles 2 to 3 meters apart.

  • Before selecting the trees you will use or the location of your poles, check the wind direction. Ensure that the back of your lean-to will be into the wind.


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Poncho Shelters Continued

  • When using a poncho for a shelter, tie off the hood first.

  • Pull the drawstring tight, roll the hood longways, fold it into thirds, and tie it off with the drawstring.

  • If you plan to use the lean-to for more than one night, or you expect rain, make a center support.

  • For additional protection from wind and rain, place some brush, your rucksack, or other equipment at the sides of the lean-to.


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Poncho Shelters Continued

  • Use a drip stick (about a 10-centimeter stick) to each rope about 2.5 centimeters from the grommet. These drip sticks will keep rain-water from running down the ropes into the lean-to. Tying strings (about 10 centimeters long) to each grommet along the poncho’s top edge will allow the water to run to and down the line without drip- ping into the shelter.













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Positive Mental Attitude

  • In any survival situation you have to want to live to do so. There are many cases of people that “shouldn’t have survived” living, and the field expert expiring in the field attributed to their individual “will to live”

  • Never Give Up!


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Fire Building

  • Fire is not a necessity to live but can calm or sooth survivors, and makes things much more livable

    • Boil Water

    • Cook Food

    • Keeps the mind occupied

  • If you build it, you put it out


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Fire Building Continued

  • 7 Steps

    • Decide that fire is necessary

    • Choose a good fire location and prepare it

    • Collect wood for the fire

    • Arrange the firewood for burning

    • Ignite the tinder

    • Add fuel as necessary

    • Extinguish the fire


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Alternate First Starting Methods

Magnifying glass, some eye glasses, lenses from binoculars or other such sources may be used an an alternative method to fire starting.




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Extinguishing a Fire

  • Fire burns in two basic modes

    • Flaming and surface combustion (represented by the fire triangle)

    • Flaming combustion (represented by the fire tetrahedron/pyramid)

  • Break the triangle or pyramid to put it out

- Remove the fuel - Reduce the heat

- Remove the oxygen - Interfere with the chemical reaction


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Fuel

Chemical

Reaction

Heat

Oxygen

Oxygen

Heat

Fuel

Fire Triangle vs. Fire Pyramid

Fire Triangle

Fire Pyramid


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Using a Fire Extinguisher

  • Use the right type

    • Class A: Common combustibles

    • Class B: Flammable liquids and gases

    • Class C: Electrical fires

    • Class D: Flammable metals


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Using a Fire Extinguisher Continued

  • Follow the acronym PASS

    • Pull

    • Aim

    • Squeeze

    • Sweep


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Extinguishing Outdoor Fires (Campfires)

  • Keep personnel and equipment upwind and ready to move

  • Use water if available

    • Don’t throw away drinking water if not easily replenished

  • Splash, spray, or sprinkle water on the fire

    • Don’t pour all at once


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Extinguishing Outdoor Fires (Campfires) Continued

  • Break up material and continue adding water until all signs of flames and glowing embers are gone

  • If water is not available, or in combination with water, throw soil, sand, etc. While breaking up burned materials


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Extinguishing Outdoor Fires (Campfires) Continued

  • Using care, place your hand close to the burned area to check to see if cool

    • Campfires, signal fires, etc., must always be completely extinguished and cool to the touch before leaving them

  • Efforts to extinguish a brushfire should only be attempted if the fire is very small, there is little or no wind, and an escape route is available. If in doubt, retreat and call the authorities


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Land Survival Tasks

  • Ground Team Members

    • O-0601: Conduct Actions if Lost

    • O-0602: Locate Natural Water Sources

    • O-0603: Prepare a Natural Shelter

    • O-0604: Build a Fire

    • O-0605: Extinguish a Fire


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QUESTIONS?

THINK SAFETY!


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