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Early nest environment and genes have lifetime effects on the expression of a colorful sexual signal. Joey K. Hubbard, Brittany R. Jenkins, Rebecca J. Safran Joanna.Hubbard@colorado.edu Animal Behavior Society July 30, 2013. Phenotypic Variation. Genes. Environment. Environmental change

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slide1

Early nest environment and genes have lifetime effects on the expression of a colorful sexual signal

Joey K. Hubbard, Brittany R. Jenkins, Rebecca J. Safran

Joanna.Hubbard@colorado.edu

Animal Behavior Society

July 30, 2013

slide3
Genes

Environment

Environmental change

Phenotypic change over a short time period

Selective pressure

Phenotypic change over generations

sexually selected traits
Sexually-Selected Traits

Indirect Benefits

Direct

Benefits

Genetic Control

Environmental Control

Phenotypic Variation

north american barn swallows
North American Barn Swallows
  • Sexual trait
  • Socially Monogamous
  • Extra-pair paternity
  • Monitoring Boulder County breeding population since 2008

Safran & McGraw 2004; Safran et al. 2005

slide8

Determined paternity using microsats

Pedigree

530 offspring with 111 mothers and 98 fathers

animal model
Animal Model
  • Univariate animal model to partition sources of variance for each color descriptor
  • Determine key variance components
  • Calculate variance ratios

VP= VA + VT + VCE + VME + VR

variance ratios
Variance Ratios

VP= VA + VT + VCE + VME + VR

influences on juvenile color
Influences on Juvenile Color

(Standard Error)

Hubbard et al. in prep

influences on juvenile color1
Influences on Juvenile Color

(Standard Error)

Hubbard et al. in prep

influences on juvenile color2
Influences on Juvenile Color

(Standard Error)

Hubbard et al. in prep

within individual variation
Within-Individual Variation

54 individuals

(out of ~4000 nestlings)

Hatch Year

Second Year

205 individuals

Year 1

Year 2

within individual variation1
Within-Individual Variation

Hatch Year

Second Year

within individual variation2
Within-Individual Variation

Hatch Year to

Second Year

within individual variation3
Within-Individual Variation

Hatch Year to

Second Year

Year 1 to

Year 2

summary
Summary

Genetic Variation

Environmental Variation

Maternal Environment

for the swallows
For the Swallows
  • Early environment has long-term effects on signal development
  • Females gain both indirect and direct benefits
heritability estimates
Heritability Estimates

Ignoring other sources of non-independence results in overestimation of heritability

Average Brightness

cross fostering experiments
Cross-fostering experiments
  • Experimentally tease apart effects of shared genes and shared environment
  • Explore specific environmental influences
slide23

Thanks!

Funding:

American Ornithologists Union

Animal Behavior Society

CU EBIO Department

CU Graduate School

NSF

CU BURST and UROP programs

Lab and Field Help:

Amazing Field Crews! Site Owners

Stephen Alderfer Monica Brandhuber

Andrew Flynn Amanda Hund

Eric Lord Julie Marling

Liz Scordato Audrey Tobin

Ty Tuff Courtney van der Linden

Rachel WildrickMatt Wilkins

Photo Credit:

Matt Wilkins

Ian Harold