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China Responds to Pressure from the West. Historical Background. In the 1700s, the Qing faced some of the same crises as the Ottomans The government initiated no early reforms In 1793, a British attempt to establish diplomatic and trading relations turned European opinion against China

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historical background
Historical Background

In the 1700s, the Qing faced some of the same crises as the Ottomans

The government initiated no early reforms

In 1793, a British attempt to establish diplomatic and trading relations turned European opinion against China

Europeans complained about the Canton System, which limited European trade with China to one port

Population had doubled from 1650 to 1800, which strained the environment in some areas, and also created many migrant workers and unemployed homeless

Minorities vented with grievances against the government

Some looked as the Qing as foreign conquerors, and so there were many internal conflicts throughout the 1800s, such as the White Lotus Rebellion

imperialism in china
Imperialism in China

British were frustrated with the Qing because of the trade deficit caused by British demand for tea and Qing refusal to import British products

British merchants had been smuggling opium into China for silver

When the Qing banned opium imports, the British sent marine forces to China in 1839

When negotiations reached a stalemate, the Opium War broke out

The British defeated the Qing

Treaty of Nanking opened up four more port cities to the British, made Hong Kong a permanent British settlement, set a low tariff, and forced the Qing to pay 21 million ounces of silver to the British

Number of Ports grew to 90 in 1900, resulting in the colonization of small pockets of Chinese territory

France forced Vietnam to end vassalage to China

British encouraged Tibetan independence

Christian missionaries sponsored hospitals, shelters, and soup kitchens

imperialism in china continued
Imperialism in China Continued

Taiping rebellion began in Guangxi led by Hong Kiuqan, who wanted to rid China of the Qing

Taipings soon began to spread and multiply

Established their capital at Nanjing in 1853

They were surrounded by Qing forces for more than a decade

In 1856, the French and the British attacked the Qing because they had not followed the rules of the Treaty of Nanking

After defeating the Qing, the British and French helped the Qing to put down the Taiping rebellion

Attempts to rebuild roads and waterworks in the early 1800s and declining tax yields had bankrupted the treasury

During the war provincial governors had been given emergency powers which they retained after the war

One such governor, ZengGuofan, oversaw programs to restore public agriculture, communication, education, publishing, and efforts to reform the military and industrialization

He created a program which sent Chinese boys to Connecticut to learn English, science, math, engineering, and history

pros of imperialism in china
Pros of Imperialism in China

Europeans gained more shipping ports in China, which opened up a huge market to them

China’s provincial governors created reforms in education, communication, and industrialization, using the United States as a model

cons of imperialism in china
Cons of Imperialism in China

The Taiping Rebellion, a result of the intrusion of the British, was the bloodiest civil war in history

Because of the Taiping rebellion, epidemic diseases spread throughout Asia and to other parts of the world

Cities in China were hard hit by refugees from the rebellion

China’s treasury went bankrupt because of the wars and had no hope of ever getting out of debt