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Ms. Garratt Honors World History Chapter 9: Sections 1 – 4. Industrialization. Overview. Transformative which will gradually impact the political, economic and social lives of the entire Begins in 1780s in England Agricultural Rev spurs its development. Second Agricultural Revolution.

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Overview
Overview – 4

  • Transformative which will gradually impact the political, economic and social lives of the entire

  • Begins in 1780s in England

  • Agricultural Rev spurs its development


Second agricultural revolution
Second Agricultural Revolution – 4

  • Impact of enclosures

    • New agricultural methods

    • Farms become more profitable

    • Displacement of small farmers

  • New technology/discoveries

    • Seed drill – Jethro Tull

    • Crop rotation

    • Fertilizers

    • Breeding – Robert Bakewell

    • McCormick Reaper


Seed drill jethro tull
Seed Drill - – 4 JethroTull


Why britain natural resources
Why Britain? Natural Resources – 4

  • (1) Natural Resources:

    • Water power & coal for energy

    • Iron ore to construct machines, tools, buildings

    • Rivers for transportation

    • Harbors for export


Why britain business infrastructure
Why Britain? Business Infrastructure – 4

  • 2) Business infrastructure

    • Entrepreneurial class (business people)

    • Banking system for loans

    • Acquisition of capital

    • Parliament – laws passed to protect & encourage industrial development


Why britain political stability
Why Britain? Political Stability – 4

  • (3) Political Stability

    • Key to development in any country

    • Parliament passes laws to protect & encourage capital and foreign ventures.

    • Overseas trade & commerce provides opportunities for investment


Why britain surplus labor
Why Britain? Surplus Labor – 4

  • Due to Agricultural Revolution workers were displaced

  • Migrated to the cities (urbanization)

  • Worked in factories or coal or iron ore mines


Why britain consumerism
Why Britain? Consumerism – 4

  • Populaton explosion meant there were people to consume products

  • Economic prosperity of middle classes

  • Economies of scale for lower classes


Why britain technological inventions
Why Britain? Technological Inventions – 4

  • Britain was leader in techno innovation.

  • IR began in textile industry

    • Flying Shutting

    • Spinning Jenny

    • Spinning mule

    • Power looms

    • Water frame

  • Water power

  • Factories


Major inventions change workplace

Cottage industry – 4

Major Inventions Change Workplace

Factory work


Transportation
Transportation – 4

  • Harbors

  • Canals

  • Roads

    • Macadams

    • Turnpikes

  • Steam Engine

    • James Watt

    • Matthew Boulton

  • Locomotives


How railroads spurs economic growth
How Railroads Spurs Economic Growth – 4

  • (1) cheap form of transportation

  • (2) creates hundreds of thousands of jobs for miners & rr workers

  • (3) boosts agric & fishing industries

  • (4)enables suburban living and travel


Impact urbanization
Impact: Urbanization – 4

  • Factories located by energy sources

  • Cities lacked:

    • Development plans

    • Sanitary or building codes

    • Adequate police/fire protection

    • Sufficient housing

  • Cities contained:

    • Unpaved streets

    • Garbage heaps

    • Slums

    • Epidemics


Working conditions
Working Conditions – 4

  • Sweatshops

  • Child Labor

  • Low Wages

  • 12- hour days in some cases

  • 6-7 days a week

  • Hazardous working conditions

  • No workers compensation for injuries

  • Exploitation


Child labor
Child Labor – 4

  • Factory Act 1833

    • Illegal under the age of 9

    • 9-13 only 8 hrs a day

  • Mines Act 1842

    • Prevents women & children in mines

  • Ten Hours Act 1847

  • National Child Labor Committee

    • Supported by unions

    • Reversed by Supreme Court




Liberalism industrialization
Liberalism & Industrialization – 4

  • Liberalism which challenged mercantilism

  • Arose out of the enlightenment

  • Belief that free market was most efficient way to generate wealth

  • Tariffs restricted trade & wealth


Adam smith
Adam Smith – 4

  • Wealth of Nations 1776

  • Three natural laws of economics

    • Law of self interest

    • Law of competition

    • Law of Supply & Demand (S/D)

  • International division of labor


Capitalism
Capitalism – 4

  • Existed in Middle Ages – long distance trade

  • Industrial Capitalism

  • Capitalists owned the factors of production

  • Free trade liberalism

  • Invest for profit

  • No government regulation or intervention

  • Would generate wealth & prosperity for society


Rise of corporations
Rise of Corporations – 4

  • Stock

  • Shareholders

  • No personal liability

  • Monopolies will develop

    • Andrew Carnegie

    • John D. Rockefeller


New class emerges
New Class Emerges – 4

  • Middle class (bourgeoisie) used to refer to townspeople

  • New industrial middle emerges (bankers, factory owners,skilled workers, merchants, entrepreneurs)

    • Benefitted from IR in short run

    • Became richer than many aristocrats

    • Not until late 1800s were they considered social equals


Case study manchester england
Case Study: Manchester, England – 4

  • Factory Act 1813

  • Pollution

  • Unregulated business


Spread of industrialization in the us
Spread of Industrialization in the US – 4

  • US

    • Samuel Slater

    • War of 1812

  • Belgium

  • Germany

  • Why it didn’t spread to some countries or did so very slowly



Thomas malthus
Thomas Malthus – 4

  • He wrote Essay on the Principle of Population

  • Predicted pop would outpace food production

  • Without checks on pop (war, epidemics…) poverty would increase

  • Urged pop control

  • His predictions never materialized

    • Food supply increased

    • Living conditions improved

    • Fewer children


Population explosion
Population Explosion – 4

  • What was the cause of this explosion?

    • Stable food supply

    • Declining death rate

    • Reduced risk of famine

    • Better hygiene and sanitation

    • Less disease

    • Increased infant mortality


David ricardo iron law of wages
David Ricardo – Iron Law of Wages – 4

  • Agreed that poor were having too many children

  • Noted that when wages were high families had more children

  • More children increased the supply of workers which led to lower wages & higher employment

  • Held out no hope for escape from poverty

  • “Dismal science”

  • Both Malthus & Ricardo opposed gov assistance

  • Best cure for poverty was “unrestricted laws of the free market”

  • Individuals had to work hard & limit family size



Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism – 4

  • Jeremy Bentham – 1700s

    • Role of gov was to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people

    • Urged gov involvement

    • Ideas should be based on their “utility”

  • John Stuart Mill 1800s

    • Questioned unregulated capitalism

    • Pushed for legal and prison reforms


Utopianism
Utopianism – 4

  • Robert Owen

  • Reformer

  • New Lanark & New Harmony

  • Mill owner who created utopian towns


Socialism
Socialism – 4

  • Factors of production should be owned by the public & operate for the benefit of all.

  • Gov intervention necessary to plan the econ rather than rely on free market capitalism

  • Control of key industries (mines, factories, railroads) would end poverty & promote equality

  • Charles Fourier and Saint-Simone



Marxism radical socialism
Marxism: Radical Socialism – 4

  • Communist Manifesto 1848

  • History is conflict between “haves” and “have nots”

  • History goes through cycles determined by economics

  • “Haves” own all the means of production

  • The oppressed proletariat will eventually violently overthrow the bourgeoisie


Communism
Communism – 4

  • After violent revolution a “dictatorship of the proletariat” would be formed

  • After abolition of economic differences a “classless society” would form

  • The state (a tool of the bourgeoisie) would then “wither away”.

  • No government would be necessary


Revisionists
Revisionists – 4

  • Reformers not revolutionaries.

  • Denounced by Marx

  • Believed that by winning the right to vote socialist goals would be achieved gradually by working within the system.

  • Workers did win many reforms such as:

    • Better working conditions

    • Shorter hours

    • Higher pay

    • Workman’s compensation




Positive impact of industrialization
Positive Impact of Industrialization – 4

  • Jobs

  • Wealth

  • Technological progress & inventions

  • Raised standard of living (sol)

  • Diet

  • Housing

  • Mass produced goods

  • Expanded edu opportunities

  • Not until after 1850 did workers


Luddites
Luddites – 4


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