Scientific Methodology (COE). Multiple Choice. An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world. Science Observation Conclusion Manipulated variable. True or False.
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An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
The goals of science are to give explanations for natural events, to understand patterns, and to make predictions.
A logical conclusion based on evidence or what is already known.
Science almost always proves things in absolute terms.
Science rarely proves things in absolute terms.
Experiments with multiple trials that include large sample sizes that are randomly selected help reduce sources of __________.
The act of noticing and describing what is happening in an orderly way.
Scientists often define “scientific uncertainty” as being 95% sure that cause and effect have been correctly identified.
A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested.
A statement of how the responding variable will change in response to changes in the manipulated variable.
An experiment in which only one variable is changed.
The result or consequence of an action, influence, or casual event.
The factor of a system being investigated that is changed to determine that factor’s relationship to the responding variable.
Mistakes of perception, measurement, or process during an investigation; an incorrect result or discrepancy.
Observations, measurements, or data collected through established and recognized scientific processes.
Controlled experiments typically involve testing two or more variables at a time.
Controlled experiments involve testing only one variable at a time.
Sam wanted to see how exposure to sunlight affects how easily a plant’s leaves would rip.
In Sam’s experiment on leaf toughness, the leaf’s exposure to sunlight is the ____________ variable and how easily the leaf ripped is the ___________ variable .
Fill in the Blank
The factor of a system being investigated that changes in response to the manipulated variable and is measured.
Same built a simple device that clips on a leaf to test its toughness. He then counts how many pennies he must add to the cup before the leaf rips. He calls his device a rip-o-meter.
Placing the rip-o-meter’s binder clip in the same position on each leaf tested is an example of a controlled variable.
True or False
Comparing the toughness of leaves as a function of branch position was best graphed using a ___________________ chart.
The conditions that are kept the same from trial to trial in a laboratory investigation.
Sam __________ from the data that his hypothesis, which stated that leaves exposed to sunlight would be tougher to rip than younger leaves, was not supported by the evidence.
An investigation under which the conditions for a phenomenon to occur are arranged beforehand by the investigator.
A strong correlation implies causation.
Remember the example about shoe size and math ability among children showing a strong correlation, but certainly no causation.
Draw a scatterplot graph that shows a strong correlation between two variables.
The part of a controlled experiment that is treated the same as the experimental set-up except for one manipulated variable.
Records of experimental observations.
Draw a scatterplot graph that shows little or no correlation between two variables.
Data that consists of numbers that are found by measuring or counting.
Data that consists of descriptions because they cannot be counted.
Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing a significant difference between two sets of data.
An agent or condition that could cause a change.
An attribute of an investigation that describes the degree of confidence that data collected and logical inferences are accurate representations of the phenomena being investigated.
List three ways to make an experiment more valid.
Repetitions of data collection procedures in an investigation .
The attitude in scientific thinking that emphasizes that no fact or principle can be known with complete certainty; the view that all knowledge is uncertain.
Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing no significant difference between two sets of data.
An attribute of any investigation that promotes consistency of results during repeated trials.
List three ways to make an experiment more reliable.
A _____ is a certain preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific.
Bias in weight loss advertisement
Any changed or changing factor used to test a hypothesis or prediction in and investigation that could affect the results.
A well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses and that lets scientists make good predictions.
A summary of how the results of a scientific investigation support or contradict the original hypothesis. This statement also evaluates the experimental procedure and its effectiveness.