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Scientific Methodology (COE). Multiple Choice. An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world. Science Observation Conclusion Manipulated variable. True or False.

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slide2

Multiple Choice

An organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.

  • Science
  • Observation
  • Conclusion
  • Manipulated variable
slide3

True or False

The goals of science are to give explanations for natural events, to understand patterns, and to make predictions.

True

slide4

Multiple Choice

A logical conclusion based on evidence or what is already known.

  • Manipulated variable
  • Inference
  • Theory
  • Data
slide5

True or False

Science almost always proves things in absolute terms.

False

Science rarely proves things in absolute terms.

slide6

Fill in the Blank

Experiments with multiple trials that include large sample sizes that are randomly selected help reduce sources of __________.

error

slide7

Multiple Choice

The act of noticing and describing what is happening in an orderly way.

  • Conclusion
  • Controlled variable
  • Observation
  • Bias
slide8

True or False

Scientists often define “scientific uncertainty” as being 95% sure that cause and effect have been correctly identified.

True

slide9

Multiple Choice

A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested.

  • Conclusion
  • Peer Review
  • Skepticism
  • Hypothesis
slide10

Multiple Choice

A statement of how the responding variable will change in response to changes in the manipulated variable.

  • Prediction
  • Observation
  • Validity
  • Reliability
slide11

Multiple Choice

An experiment in which only one variable is changed.

  • Procedure or process
  • Protocol
  • Controlled experiment
  • Analytic investigation
slide12

Multiple Choice

The result or consequence of an action, influence, or casual event.

  • Effect
  • Selection
  • Inference
  • Cause
slide13

Multiple Choice

The factor of a system being investigated that is changed to determine that factor’s relationship to the responding variable.

  • Prediction
  • Control group
  • Controlled variable
  • Manipulated variable
slide14

Multiple Choice

Mistakes of perception, measurement, or process during an investigation; an incorrect result or discrepancy.

  • Cause
  • Observation
  • Inference
  • Error
slide15

Multiple Choice

Observations, measurements, or data collected through established and recognized scientific processes.

  • Evidence
  • Hypotheses
  • Theories
  • Consequences
slide16

True or False

Controlled experiments typically involve testing two or more variables at a time.

False

Controlled experiments involve testing only one variable at a time.

slide17

Sam wanted to see how exposure to sunlight affects how easily a plant’s leaves would rip.

In Sam’s experiment on leaf toughness, the leaf’s exposure to sunlight is the ____________ variable and how easily the leaf ripped is the ___________ variable .

Fill in the Blank

manipulated

responding

slide18

Multiple Choice

The factor of a system being investigated that changes in response to the manipulated variable and is measured.

  • Quantitative data
  • Responding variable
  • Controlled variable
  • Qualitative data
slide19

Same built a simple device that clips on a leaf to test its toughness. He then counts how many pennies he must add to the cup before the leaf rips. He calls his device a rip-o-meter.

Placing the rip-o-meter’s binder clip in the same position on each leaf tested is an example of a controlled variable.

True or False

True

slide20

Fill in the Blank

Comparing the toughness of leaves as a function of branch position was best graphed using a ___________________ chart.

Scatter plot

slide21

Multiple Choice

The conditions that are kept the same from trial to trial in a laboratory investigation.

  • Controlled variables
  • Responding variable
  • Manipulated variable
  • Quantitative data
slide22

Fill in the Blank

concluded

Sam __________ from the data that his hypothesis, which stated that leaves exposed to sunlight would be tougher to rip than younger leaves, was not supported by the evidence.

slide23

Multiple Choice

An investigation under which the conditions for a phenomenon to occur are arranged beforehand by the investigator.

  • Variable
  • Experiment
  • Trial
  • Effect
slide24

True or False

A strong correlation implies causation.

False

Remember the example about shoe size and math ability among children showing a strong correlation, but certainly no causation.

slide25

Draw a Graph

Draw a scatterplot graph that shows a strong correlation between two variables.

slide26

Multiple Choice

The part of a controlled experiment that is treated the same as the experimental set-up except for one manipulated variable.

  • Qualitative data
  • Conclusion
  • Control group
  • Observations
slide27

Multiple Choice

Records of experimental observations.

  • Inferences
  • Bias
  • Experimental group
  • Data
slide28

Draw a Graph

Draw a scatterplot graph that shows little or no correlation between two variables.

slide29

Multiple Choice

Data that consists of numbers that are found by measuring or counting.

  • Variables
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Sources of Error
slide30

Multiple Choice

Data that consists of descriptions because they cannot be counted.

  • Variables
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Measurements
slide31

Draw a Graph

Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing a significant difference between two sets of data.

slide32

Multiple Choice

An agent or condition that could cause a change.

  • Factor
  • Observation
  • Effect
  • Hypothesis
slide33

Multiple Choice

An attribute of an investigation that describes the degree of confidence that data collected and logical inferences are accurate representations of the phenomena being investigated.

  • Theory
  • Control
  • Validity
  • Hypothesis
slide34

Short Answer

List three ways to make an experiment more valid.

  • Make sure that the relationship between cause and effect is reasonable.
  • Test only one variable at a time.
  • Use a control as a comparison.
  • Control bias.
slide35

Multiple Choice

Repetitions of data collection procedures in an investigation .

  • Trials
  • Quantitative data
  • Inferences
  • Experimental group
slide36

Multiple Choice

The attitude in scientific thinking that emphasizes that no fact or principle can be known with complete certainty; the view that all knowledge is uncertain.

  • Open-mindedness
  • Skepticism
  • Bias
  • Conclusions
slide37

Draw a Graph

Draw a plot of averages with error bars showing no significant difference between two sets of data.

slide38

Multiple Choice

An attribute of any investigation that promotes consistency of results during repeated trials.

  • Inferences
  • Bias
  • Variability
  • Reliability
slide39

Short Answer

List three ways to make an experiment more reliable.

  • Use a large sample size.
  • Randomly select the samples
  • Perform multiple trials.
  • Increase time over which measurements are taken.
slide40

Fill in the Blank

bias

A _____ is a certain preference or point of view that is personal, rather than scientific.

Bias in weight loss advertisement

slide41

Multiple Choice

Any changed or changing factor used to test a hypothesis or prediction in and investigation that could affect the results.

  • Variable
  • Data set
  • Inference
  • Hypothesis
slide42

Multiple Choice

A well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses and that lets scientists make good predictions.

  • Hypothesis
  • Evidence
  • Theory
  • Observations
slide43

Multiple Choice

A summary of how the results of a scientific investigation support or contradict the original hypothesis. This statement also evaluates the experimental procedure and its effectiveness.

  • Conclusion
  • Theory
  • Procedure
  • Predictions