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  1. Citing Sources: Using APA Style Dr. George J. Brown Library/Learning Resource Center Spring 2010 Click on the hyperlinks to see example of citations. Click on the (located bottom right) to return to main menus.

  2. Main Menu • Authors • Citing Books • Citing Articles • Citing a Motion Picture • Citing Electronic Resources • Documentation: Citing Sources EXIT

  3. AUTHORS • Single Author • Two Authors • Three to Seven Authors or Editors • More than Seven Authors • Organization as Author • Unknown Author

  4. Single Author Talbot, F. (2009). How to write effective business English: The essential toolkit for composing powerful letters, e-mails and more, for today’s business needs. London: Kogan Page.

  5. Two Authors Fraser, L. M., & Ormiston, A. (2010). Understanding financial statements. (9th ed.). Boston: Prentice-Hall.


  6. Three to Seven Authors or Editors Deane, E., Trimble, M., Lancaster, B., & Allbright, C. (1986). The best of the Arkansas Traveler: 1956-1986. (M. T. Rice, Ed.). Little Rock: August House. Williams, C. F., Bolton, S. C., Moneyhon, C. H., & Williams L. T. (Eds.). (1984). A documentary history of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

  7. A Work With More Than Seven Authors Forster, A., Young, J., Green, J., Patterson, C., Wanklyn, P., Smith J., . . . Lowson, K. (2009). Structured re-assessment system at 6 months after a disabling stroke: A randomised controlled trial with resource use and cost study. Age and Ageing, 38(5), 576-583. Retrieved from MEDLINE database. *When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last author’s name. (APA, Rule 6.27, pp. 184).

  8. Organization as Author American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. *When the author and the publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. (APA, Rule 7.02, pp.203)

  9. Unknown Author Dosage calculations made incredibly easy. (2010). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

  10. Citing Books • A chapter in a book • An article in a reference book • A book with an editor or translator • A book with an author and editor • Two or more books by the same author • An edition • A multi-volume work

  11. A Chapter in a Book Charles, D. (2009). Genetically modified food can increase the world’s food supply. In Jennifer L. Shancke, (Ed.), Genetically modified food (pp. 67-73). Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

  12. An Article in a Reference Book Huizenga, J. R. (2007). Nuclear fission. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology (10th ed., Vol. 12, pp. 112-118). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  13. A Book with an Editoror Translator Steward, D. F., (Ed.). (2002). A rough sort of beauty: Reflections on the natural heritage of Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. Editor (Editors) – Ed. (Eds.) Translator(s) – Trans.

  14. A Book With an Author and Editor Nuttall, T. (1999). A journal of travels into the Arkansas territory during the year 1819. (S. Lottinville, Ed.). Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

  15. Two or More Books by the Same Author Stevenson, D. (1996). Armaments and the coming of war: Europe, 1904-1914. New York: Oxford University Press. Stevenson, D., (Ed.). (1997). The outbreak of the first world war: 1914 in perspective. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

  16. An Edition Cooperman, S. H. (2009). Professional office procedures. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall. Hyman, T. S. (1974). Snow White. (Silver Anniversary Edition). Boston: Little, Brown.

  17. A Multi-Volume Work Fallek, M. & Solie-Johnson, K. (2003). How to set up your own small business. (Vols. 1-2). Minneapolis: American Institute of Small Business.

  18. Citing Articles • An article in a familiar reference book or encyclopedia • Article in a reference book or encyclopedia • An article in a newspaper • An article in a magazine • An article in a scholarly journal Has volume & issue information • An anonymous article

  19. An Article in a Familiar Reference Book or Encyclopedia Pasachoff, J. M. (2009). Astronomy. In The world book encyclopedia. (Vol. A-1, pp. 834-849). Chicago: World Book.

  20. An Article in a Reference Book or Encyclopedia McColley, D. K. (1999). John Milton. In P. F. Grendler, et al. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of the renaissance (Vol. 4: Machiavelli – Petrarchism, pp. 147-157). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. *Note: et. al is Latin meaning and others and in this citation is used for a large board of editors.

  21. An Article in a Newspaper Scott, M. D. (2003, August 21). Heavenly stargazing: Red planet will provide closest view in eons. [Late ed.]. New York Times, pp. A1+.

  22. An Article in a Magazine Weekly or bi-weekly magazine Plagens, P. (2000, October 16). A life-time passion for collecting. Newsweek, 72-80. Monthly or Bi-Monthly Magazine Judasim in the theology of Sir Isaac Newton. (2000, September). Church History, 671.

  23. An Article in a Scholarly Journal Can we save the present for the future? (2003). American Historical Review, 103(4), 734. Rubin, J. S. (2003). What is the history of the history of books? Journal of American History,90(2), 5-12. Note: 103(4) & 90(2) = volume(issue)

  24. An Anonymous Article Hands around the world. (2003, September 29) People, 87. History behind the Bible. (2003). Biblical Archaeology Review, 29(1), 40.

  25. A Motion Picture Wick, D., Franzoni, D., & Lustig, B. (Producers), & Scott, R. (Director). (2003). Gladiator [Motion picture]. United States: Dreamworks & Universal Pictures.

  26. Citing Electronic Resources • An electronic book • An article in an online reference database i.e. Encyclopedia Britannica • An article in an online database to which the library subscribes • EBSCOhost • SIRS • Facts on File: Issues & Controversies • MagillOnLiterature

  27. An Electronic Book Tracy, B. (1998). Success is a journey: Make your life a grand adventure. (J. Smith, Ed.). Provo, UT: Executive Excellence. Available from http://www.netlibrary.com/ebook_info. asp?product_id=6772&piclist=19799,19973,19974,21541 Andersen, H. C. (n.d.). Andersen’s fairy tales. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg. org/etext/1597

  28. An Article in an Online Reference Database Seven wonders of the world. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article-9066945

  29. EBSCOhost Havstad, J. (2010). Human reproductive cloning: A conflict of liberties. Bioethics, 24(2), 71-77. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00692.x. *Note: DOI or digital object identifier is a unique alphanumeric string which provides a persistent link to an article’s location on the Internet. When available include it for both print and electronic sources.

  30. SIRS Gold, M. (1997, August). The greatest gift: A guide to adoption. Moment, pp. 42+. Retrieved from SIRS Knowledge Source database (SIRS Researcher). Linton, Michael. (1999, March). The Mozart effect. First Things, pp. 10-13. Retrieved from SIRS Knowledge Source database (SIRS Renaissance).

  31. FACTS ON FILE Minimum drinking age. (2009, July 6). Retrieved from Issues & Controversies On File.

  32. MagillOnLiterature Faulkner, W. (1996). Absalom! Absalom! Retrieved from MagillOnLiterature Plus database.

  33. Documentation: Citing Sources • Parenthetical documentation • References

  34. Parenthetical Documentation • Author’s name in the sentence • Author’s name in the reference • Citing an entire work • Citing part of an article or of a book • Citing volume and page numbers of a multivolume work • Citing a work listed by title • Citing two or more works by the same author

  35. Author’s Name in the Sentence • Magny (2003) develops this argument. • Others, like Walters and Edwards (2010), hold the opposite point of view. • It may be true, as Smith (2009) maintains, that “media and the military cultures are clashing” (p. 264). • Note: First two examples are summary statements and the third is a direct quote therefore a page number is needed.

  36. Author’s Name in the Reference • Others have argued this point (e.g. Kerrigan and Smith, 2010). • Only one scholar has observed this relation (Cooper, 2010).

  37. Citing an Entire Work • Davis’ Gardening Secrets (2010) include many vegetables and flower growing tips. • Malone and Turner (2010) broke new ground on the subject. • Fryar et al. (2010) have provided a useful guide to 2010 tax laws.

  38. Citing Part of An Article or of A Book • One author presents several opinions on factors that cause police brutality (Cothran, 2010, Chapter 3). • The Iraq War was the first war in which television reporting was real-time, hence called “War: Live in Iraq” (Smith, 2010, pp. 59-78).

  39. Citing Volume and Page #’s of a Multivolume Work • Fallek and Solie-Johnson (2008) state “pitfalls are only something to worry about if you don’t know where they are” (2: 757). • In the election of 2000, the ballot counting system in the United States underwent intense scrutiny (Schlesinger, 2008, Vol. 4, p. 98).

  40. Citing a Work Listed by Title • A New York Times editorial called Ralph Ellison “a writer of universal reach” (“Death,” 2010). • Paul Cézanne, “a founder of impressionism” was born and raised in Aux-en-Provence (European Artists, 2010, p. 70).

  41. Two or More Works by the Same Author or Authors • “The global impact of the First World War dominated the history of the first half of the twentieth century” (Stevenson, Armaments, p. 29). • “The First World War began over a local war, launched by the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary against Serbia . . .The Austro-Serb conflict was triggered by the murders of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, on 27 June 1914” (Stevenson, The Outbreak, p.2).

  42. REFERENCES • Draft this section first so that you will know what information to give in parenthetical references as you write. • The list of references appears at the end of the paper. If your paper ends in page 14, the References page is 15. • ½ header should be aligned left with title of paper in all caps and page # aligned right. • Center the title, References, an inch from the top of the page. • Double-space between the title and the first entry. • Begin each entry flush with the left margin, indent subsequent lines five spaces. • Double-space the entire list, both between and within entries. • Alphabetize by the author’s (or editor’s) last name or by title if no author.