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World History. Chapter Three India & China (3000 B.C. – A.D. 500). Objectives. 1 . Explain how geography influenced the development in India & China 2 . Identify characteristics of these civilizations. Objectives.

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world history
World History
  • Chapter Three
  • India & China
  • (3000 B.C. – A.D. 500)
  • 1. Explain how geography influenced the development in India & China2. Identify characteristics of these civilizations
  • 3. Explain political & social structures in these countries4. Describe the role of religion5. List the contributions of each civilization
i the land of india
I. The Land of India
  • Indian subcontinent, located along the southern edge of Asia, shaped like a triangle
  • Composed of mountain ranges, river valleys, a dry interior plateau & fertile coastal plains
the land of india
The Land of India
  • Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world
  • Ganges River, located on a rich valley, one of the chief regions of Indian culture
  • Deccan, a hilly & dry plateau that extends from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India
the land of india1
The Land of India
  • Monsoon – a seasonal wind pattern in Southern Asia the blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, & cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter (p.72)
  • Farmers depend on the rains to grow crops
ii india s first civilization
II. India’s First Civilization
  • Between 3000 B.C. & 1500 B.C.
  • More than a thousand settlements in this region
  • Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
a harappa mohenjo daro
A. Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
  • Planned cities
  • Constructed of mud bricks baked in ovens & were square
  • Advanced drainage system
  • Well organized government
b rulers the economy
B. Rulers & the Economy
  • Divine assistance
  • Religion & political power closely linked
  • Economy based on farming
rulers the economy
Rulers & the Economy
  • Trade with city-states in Mesopotamia
  • Trade was carried by ship via the Persian Gulf
iii the arrival of the aryans
III. The Arrival of the Aryans
  • Floods, earthquakes & climate change weakened the civilization
  • Arrival of the Aryans brought it to an end
a who were the aryans
A. Who Were the Aryans?
  • Around 1500 B.C.
  • Aryans, A group of Indo-European nomadic peoples, who came out of central Asia
  • moved across the Hindu Kush mountain range
  • Created a new Indian society based on Aryan culture & institutions
b aryan ways of life
B. Aryan Ways of Life
  • Pastoral people, with a strong warrior tradition
  • Became farmers, using the iron plow & irrigation
  • Developed irrigation systems
aryan ways of life
Aryan Ways of Life
  • Had no written language
  • Sanskrit - the first writing system of the Aryans, developed around 1000 B.C. (p.74)
  • Wrote down religious rituals, legends & chants
aryan ways of life1
Aryan Ways of Life
  • Rajas - An Aryan leader or prince (p.74)
  • Carved out small states & fought one another
iv society in ancient india
IV. Society in Ancient India
  • Set of social institutions & class divisions
a the caste system
A. The Caste System
  • Aryans social institutions & class divisions
  • Caste system – a set of rigid categories in ancient India that determined a person’s occupation & economic potential as well as his or her position in society, based partly on skin color (p.75)
the caste system
The Caste System
  • Caste – on of the five major divisions of Indian classes in ancient times
  • 1. Brahmans, priest class
  • 2. Kshatriyas, warriors
the caste system1
The Caste System
  • 3. Vaisyas, commoners
  • 4. Sudras, peasants (darker-skinned natives)
  • 5. Untouchables, trash collector & morticians (5%) of population

The Caste System

b the family in ancient india
B. The Family in Ancient India
  • Basic unit of Indian society
  • Extended family
  • Patriarchal
the family in ancient india
The Family in Ancient India
  • Ritual of suttee
  • Required a wife to throw herself on her dead husband’s flaming funeral pyre
v hinduism
V. Hinduism
  • Hinduism – the major Indian religion system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled in India after 1500 B.C. (p.77)
  • Vedas, collection of hymns & religious ceremonies
  • Brahman, a form of ultimate reality or God
  • Individual self, or atman
  • Reincarnation – the rebirth of an individual’s soul in a different form after death (p.77)

  • After many existences the soul may unite with Brahman
  • Final goal is a union with Brahman
  • Karma – in Hinduism, the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life (p.77) if they are reborn as a person
  • Dharma – in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma, it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society (p.77)
  • Duties vary with one’s caste
  • Justified the upper class & gave hope to the poor
  • Yoga – a method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with God (p.77)
  • More than 33,000 deities
  • Brahma the creator
  • Vishnu the Preserver
  • Siva the Destroyer

vi buddhism
VI. Buddhism
  • Buddhism – a religious doctrine introduced in northern India in the Sixth century B.C. by Siddartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One” (p.78)
  • Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism



a the story of the buddha
A. The Story of the Buddha
  • Witnessed death, disease & old age
  • Ascetic – a person who practices self-denial to achieve an understanding of ultimate reality (p.78)
  • Abusing his body, did not bring enlightenment
b the basic principles of buddhism
B. The Basic Principles of Buddhism
  • The pain, poverty & sorrow that afflict human beings are caused by their attachment to things of this world
  • The physical realm is illusion
  • Desire’s attachments cause suffering
the basic principles of buddhism
The Basic Principles of Buddhism
  • Nirvana – in Buddhism, ultimate reality, the end of the self & a reunion with the Great World Soul (p.78)
four noble truths
Four Noble Truths
  • 1. Ordinary life is full of suffering
  • 2. This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves
  • 3. The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals & to see others as extensions of ourselves
  • 4. The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path
the eightfold path
The Eightfold Path
  • 1. Right View
  • 2. Right intention
  • 3. Right Speech
  • 4. Right action
  • 5. Right livelihood
  • 6. Right effort
  • 7. Right Mindfulness
  • 8. Right concentration