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RHASE-. sexually transmitted diseases. What are they?.

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sexually transmitted diseases

what are they
What are they?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (also known as STDs — or STIs for "sexually transmitted infections") are infectious diseases that spread from person to person through intimate contact. STDs can affect guys and girls of all ages and backgrounds who are having sex — it doesn't matter if they're rich or poor.
  • Unfortunately, STDs have become common among teens. Because teens are more at risk for getting some STDs, it's important to learn what you can do to protect yourself.
  • STDs are more than just an embarrassment. They're a serious health problem. If untreated, some STDs can cause permanent damage, such as infertility (the inability to have a baby) and even death (in the case of HIV/AIDS).
how they spread
How they spread…
  • One reason STDs spread is because people think they can only be infected if they have sexual intercourse. That's wrong. A person can get some STDs, like herpes or genital warts, through skin-to-skin contact with an infected area or sore.
  • Another myth about STDs is that you can't get them if you have oral or anal sex. That's also wrong because the viruses or bacteria that cause STDs can enter the body through tiny cuts or tears in the mouth and anus, as well as the genitals.
  • STDs also spread easily because you can't tell whether someone has an infection. In fact, some people with STDs don't even know that they have them. These people are in danger of passing an infection on to their sex partners without even realizing it.
some of the things that increase a person s chances of getting an std are
Some of the things that increase a person's chances of getting an STD are:
  • Sexual activity at a young age. The younger a person starts having sex, the greater his or her chances of becoming infected with an STD.
  • Lots of sex partners. People who have sexual contact — not just intercourse, but any form of intimate activity — with many different partners are more at risk than those who stay with the same partner.
  • Unprotected sex. Latex condoms are the only form of birth control that reduce your risk of getting an STD, and must be used every time. Spermicides, diaphragms, and other birth control methods may help prevent pregnancy, but they don't protect a person against STDs.
healthy cervix
Healthy cervix

cervix opening

vaginal wall


infected cervix

  • (pronounced: kluh-mid-ee-uh) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Although you may not have heard its name, chlamydia is one of the most common STDs.
  • Because there often aren't any symptoms, though, lots of people can have chlamydia and not know it.

vaginal wall

  • The bacteria can move from one person to another through sexual intercourse, and possibly through oral-genital contact.
  • If someone touches bodily fluids that contain the bacteria and then touches his or her eye, a chlamydial eye infection is possible.
  • Chlamydia also can be passed from a mother to her baby while the baby is being delivered.
  • This can cause pneumonia and conjuntivitis, which can become very serious for the baby if it's not treated.
  • You can't catch chlamydia from a towel, doorknob, or toilet seat.
when do symptoms appear and what can happen
When Do Symptoms Appear? And What Can Happen?
  • Someone who has contracted chlamydia may see symptoms a week later.
  • In some people, the symptoms take up to 3 weeks to appear, and many people never develop any symptoms.
  • If left untreated in girls, chlamydia can cause an infection of the urethra (where urine comes out) and inflammation (swelling and soreness caused by the infection) of the cervix. It can also lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is an infection of the uterus, ovaries, and/or fallopian tubes. PID can cause infertility and ectopic (tubal) pregnancies later in life.
  • If left untreated in guys, chlamydia can cause inflammation of the urethra and epididymis (the structure attached to the testicle that helps transport sperm).
how is it treated
How Is It Treated?
  • The doctor will do an exam that may include swabbing the vagina or penis for secretions, which will then be analyzed. Sometimes doctors can diagnose chlamydia by testing a person's urine.
  • Talk to your doctor about which test is best for you. And let the doctor know the best way to reach you confidentially with any test results.
  • If you have been exposed to chlamydia or are diagnosed with chlamydia, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics, which should clear up the infection in 7 to 10 days.
  • Anyone with whom you've had sex will also need to be tested and treated for chlamydia because that person may be infected but not have any symptoms. This includes any sexual partners in the last 2 months or your last sexual partner if it has been more than 2 months since your last sexual experience.
  • It is very important that someone with a chlamydia infection abstain from having sex until they and their partner have been treated.
genital herpes
Genital Herpes



painful blisters

genital herpes1
Genital Herpes
  • Genital herpes is caused by a virus called herpes simplex (HSV).
  • There are two different types of herpes virus that cause genital herpes — HSV-1 and HSV-2.
  • Most forms of genital herpes are HSV-2.
  • But a person with HSV-1 (the type of virus that causes cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth) can transmit the virus through oral sex to another person's genitals.
  • It causes herpes sores in the genital area and is transmitted through vaginal, oral, or anal sex, especially from unprotected sex when infected skin touches the vaginal, oral, or anal area.
  • Occasionally, it can cause sores in the mouth, and can be spread by secretions in saliva. Because the virus does not live outside the body for long, you cannot catch genital herpes from an object, such as a toilet seat.
symptoms of a genital herpes outbreak
Symptoms of a Genital Herpes Outbreak
  • Someone who has been exposed to the genital herpes virus may not be aware of the infection and may never have an outbreak of sores. However, if a person does have an outbreak, the symptoms can cause significant discomfort.
  • Someone with genital herpes may first notice itching or pain, followed by sores that appear a few hours to a few days later.
  • The sores, which may appear on the vagina, penis, scrotum, buttocks, or anus, start out as red bumps that soon turn into red, watery blisters.
  • The sores may make it very painful to urinate. The sores may open up, ooze fluid or bleed, and then heal within the next 2 to 4 weeks.
  • The entire genital area may feel very tender or painful, and the person may have flu-like symptoms including fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
  • If someone has an outbreak in the future, it will tend to be less severe and shorter in duration, with the sores healing in about 10 days.
what can happen
What Can Happen?
  • There is no cure for herpes; it will always remain in the body and can always be passed to another person with any form of unprotected sex.
  • This is the case even if blisters aren't present on the genitals, but more likely if they are.
  • Many cases of genital herpes are transmitted when symptoms are not present, but a person can lessen the chance of spreading the infection to someone else by taking antiviral medication to lessen the amount of herpes virus that is around.
  • This is a prescription medication that needs to be obtained from a doctor.
genital warts
Genital Warts





what are they1
What Are They?
  • Genital warts are warts that are located near or in the genital areas.
  • In a female, that means on or near the vulva (the outside genital area), vagina, cervix, or anus.
  • In a male, that means near or on the penis, scrotum, or anus.
  • Warts appear as bumps or growths. They can be flat or raised, single or many, small or large.
  • They tend to be whitish or flesh colored.
  • They are not always easy to see with the naked eye, and many times a person with genital warts doesn't know that they're there.

Genital warts are caused by a group of viruses called HPV (short for human papillomavirus). There are more than 100 types of HPV.

  • Some of them cause the kind of warts you see on people's hands and feet.
  • Genital warts and the kinds of warts on hands and feet are usually caused by different types of HPV.
  • More than 40 types of HPV cause genital warts.
  • Genital warts can be passed from person to person through intimate sexual contact (vaginal, oral, or anal sex).
  • In some rare cases, genital warts are transmitted from a mother to her baby during childbirth.
what are the signs and symptoms
What Are the Signs and Symptoms?
  • People often don't have any symptoms from genital warts — the warts usually do not hurt or itch, which is one reason why people may not know they have them.
  • Doctors can diagnose warts by examining the skin closely (sometimes with a magnifying glass) and using a special solution to make them easier to see.
  • A Pap smear (a test that is performed during a gynecologic exam) and other tests can help diagnose an HPV infection.
how are they treated
How Are They Treated?
  • A doctor will do an examination, make a diagnosis, and then provide treatment, if necessary.
  • A number of different treatments might be used depending on where the warts are located, how big they are, and how many there are.
  • The doctor might put special medications on the warts, or remove them with treatments like laser therapy or chemical "freezing."
  • Sometimes warts can come back, so you might need to visit the doctor again. Anyone with whom you've had sex also should be checked for genital warts.
  • Not all bumps on a person's genitals are warts.



cervix opening