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Bedding Plant Production Competencies: 10.00-13.00
Begonias Geraniums Impatiens Marigolds Pansies Petunias Potential Problems Media Transplanting Bedding Plant Production Categories (Click to view)
Begonias • Grow 6”-12” high with pink, red, or white flowers • Spaced 6”-10” apart and need direct sunlight • May be propagated from seeds or cuttings and transplanted
Begonias • Time from seeding to market in packs is about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots) • Small seeds should be lightly pressed into surface of germinating medium • Germination requires light and 65-70 degree F medium temperature • Can be propagated by stem cuttings • Plants do well in full sun to shade
Geraniums • Grow 12”-18” • Dark green leaves are rounded with scalloped edges • Flowers are red, white, or pink and grow on a stem • Flowers have many petals in a cluster shaped like a ball
Geraniums • About 2/3 of all geraniums sold are red • Direct sunlight is needed • 10”-12” spacing is needed • May be propagated from seeds or cuttings and transplanted
Geraniums • Time from seeding to market in packs is about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots) • Seeds are large and have to be scarified because of hard seed coats • Seed suppliers usually scarify before packing for sale. Seeds should be coved with 1/8 inch of medium • Medium should be about 75 degrees F.
Impatiens • Grow 6”-18” high and have succulent stems • Lance shaped leaves • Flower colors include pink, lavender, white, red, purple, salmon, and coral.
Impatiens • Flowers are small and round with five petals • One flower petal is shaped like a tube that protrudes from the underside of the flower • Spaced 12”-18” and needs partial sun or shade • May be propagated from seeds or cuttings
Impatiens • Time from seeding to market in packs is about 8 weeks • Seeds should be placed on surface of medium and covered lightly • Germination requires light and temperature of 60-70 degrees F • Have been the number one bedding crop for many years • Grow well in shade
Marigolds • Grow from 6” to 4’ tall • Orange or yellow flowers have a pungent aroma • Spaced 6”-12” apart and grow best in full sunlight • Grown from seeds and transplanted
Marigolds • Time from seeding to market in packs is about 9 weeks (10 weeks in pots) • Seeds should be covered by ¼” of germinating medium • Medium should be 70-75 degrees F • Outdoor plants should grow in full sun for best quality • Very few cultural problems
Pansies • Grow from 6-8” tall • Moon-faced flowers in many colors (blue, purple, yellow, white, pink, red) • Spaced 6-8” in full sun • Grown from seeds and transplanted • Cool-season bedding plant
Pansies • Time from seeding to market in packs is about 12 weeks (13 weeks in pots) • Seeds should be planted on surface of medium and covered with paper to keep dark • Germination medium should be 70 degrees Fahrenheit • Grow in full sun
Petunias • Grow from 6”-18” tall • Flowers have a tube-shaped base • Colors include red, pink, white, blue, and pastels • Spaced 10”-12” • Grown from seeds and transplanted
Petunias • Time from seeding to market in packs is about 10 weeks (11 weeks in pots) • Sow seeds on surface of medium • Seeds are very small (285,000 per ounce) • Need light and 70-80 degrees F germinating medium temperature • Many different types and colors • One of top five annuals in the U.S. for over 100 years
Potential Problems (Click to view) • Cultural Disorders • Germination Problems • Fertilization Problems • Uneven growth • Tall and spindly growth • Diseases • Seedlings falling over • Lower leaves brown, rotting, and drying • Insects • Plants missing • Holes in leaves or plant parts missing
Cultural-Germination Problems • Causes • Improper temperatures • Over-watering or underwatering • Chemical residues in medium • Seed planting depth • Low quality seeds
Cultural-Germination Problems • Correction or Prevention • Use high-quality seeds • Plant at proper depth • Use medium with no chemical residues • Maintain proper temperatures • Maintain proper moisture levels
Cultural-Fertilization Problems • Causes • Lack of nutrients • Root injury • Improper pH of medium • Excessive fertilization Manganese Deficiency
Cultural-Fertilization Problems • Correction or Prevention • Test soil or media • Apply correct amounts and kinds of nutrients • Use pH correcting materials
Cultural-Uneven Growth • Causes • Poor mixing of medium • Uneven moisture levels • Unlevel flats • Poor grading of seedlings
Cultural-Uneven Growth • Correction or Prevention • Proper mixing of media • Even watering • Grading seedlings by size and quality • Placing flats level
Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth • Causes • Too much nitrogen fertilizer • Overwatering • Low light intensity (too much shade) • High temperatures
Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth • Correction or Prevention • Use the correct amount of nitrogen • Reduce frequency of watering • Lower temperature • Provide more light • Use growth retardant such as B-Nine SP
Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over • Causes • Stem rot • Damping-off
Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over • Correction or Prevention • Use sterilized media • Apply fungicides • Improve air circulation around plants
Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves • Causes • Botrytis
Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves • Correction or Prevention • Increase air temperature • Increase air circulation around plants • Use proper fungicide
Insects-Plants Missing • Causes • Slugs • Snails • Cockroaches
Insects-Plants Missing • Correction or Prevention • Use baits and pesticides
Causes Aphids Mealy Bugs Scale Insects Thrips Whiteflies Flea beetles Fungus Gnats Leaf miners Cutworms Caterpillars Insects-Holes in Leaves
Insects-Holes in Leaves • Correction or Prevention • Use of recommended pesticides to control insects
Bedding Plant Media • Media-materials used to start and grow plants • Soil • Inorganic materials • Commercially prepared mixes
Soil • Soil must be mixed with other materials such as peat moss to add organic matter and improve aeration and drainage.
Inorganic Materials • Improve aeration and drainage • Sand-finely ground stone • Gravel • Perlite • Expanded volcanic rock • Neutral pH 7.0-7.5 • sterile • Vermiculite • Expanded mica • sterile
Commercially Prepared Mixes • Sterile (no insects, weeds, or diseases) • Jiffy-Mix • Redi-Earth • Pro-Mix • Sunshine Mix • Metro Mix • Other brands also available
Containers • Flat-plastic tray used for planting seeds • Cell packs-several small cell-like pots of plastic molded together used for planting one or two seeds per cell • Sold without transplanting to another container • Peat pots can be planted directly in the soil • Jiffy 7 pellet can be planted directly in the soil
Containers • Plastic pots of various sizes and shapes • Clay pots of various sizes and shapes • Styrofoam pots of various sizes • Hanging baskets • Standard pot is the same width at the top as it is high • Azalea pot is ¾ as high as its top diameter or width
Transplanting Instructions • Seedlings should have true leaves not just seed leaves or cotyledons before being transplanted. Waiting too long to transplant causes shock to transplanted seedlings.
Transplanting Instructions • Hold plants by their leaves. Do not hold by the stem because a badly bruised stem will cause the seedling to die. • The media may need to be loosened with a pot label to keep from breaking stem and roots. Do not shake medium off roots.
Transplanting Instructions • Use a dibble or other means to make a hole for the transplanting seedling.
Transplanting Instructions 5. Plant seedling in the media in the new container slightly deeper than it grew in the flat and gently press media around roots.
Transplanting Instructions 6. Water gently to settle media around roots.
Transplanting Instructions • Keep moist for a few days to prevent wilting and dying. • Grow and harden-off before selling.