Thinking Critically in Psychology. Introduction to Psychology Simon Fraser University. Skepticism. APA report on undergraduate education students develop skills in learning critical thinking reasoning students should become “amiable skeptics” about the information they encounter.
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Thinking Critically in Psychology Introduction to Psychology Simon Fraser University
Skepticism • APA report on undergraduate education • students develop skills in • learning • critical thinking • reasoning • students should become “amiable skeptics” about the information they encounter
Some tools that skeptics use: • Differentiating between fact and opinion • Recognizing and evaluating author bias and rhetoric • Determining cause-and-effect relationships • Determining the accuracy and completeness of information • Recognizing logical fallacies and faulty reasoning • Comparing and contrasting information and points of view • Developing inferential skills • Making judgments and drawing logical conclusions
The CRITIC Acronym • C Claim? • R Role of the claimant? • I Information backing the claim? • T Test? • I Independent testing? • C Cause proposed?
The CRITIC Acronym • Claim • what claim is being made? • can claim be assessed? • is claim falsifiable?
The CRITIC Acronym • Role of the Claimant • who is making the claim? • is the claimant objective/unbiased? • does claimant have something to gain?
The CRITIC Acronym • Information backing the claim? • what evidence is cited to support claim? • how reliable is evidence? • where was evidenced obtained? • can evidence be replicated?
The CRITIC Acronym • Test? • how was claim tested? • proper controls used? • internal validity of experiment? • correlation vs. causation?
The CRITIC Acronym • Independent testing? • is there an independent/unbiased test of the claim? • replication?
The CRITIC Acronym • Cause Proposed? • is the causal explanation for the claim plausible?