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Global Trends in B ioplastics. Boris A. Miksic, FNACE® Cortec Corporation / EcoCortec. Overview. Bioplastics –terminology Bioplastics market – trends Disposal Certification Conclusion. “Traditional” plastic. Almost entirely derived from non-renewable, fossil sources

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slide1

Global TrendsinBioplastics

Boris A. Miksic, FNACE®

Cortec Corporation/EcoCortec

overview
Overview
  • Bioplastics –terminology
  • Bioplastics market – trends
  • Disposal
  • Certification
  • Conclusion
traditional plastic
“Traditional” plastic
  • Almost entirely derived from non-renewable, fossil sources
  • These are artificial materials and nature does not know how to handle them
problem
Problem

… is all around

us!

slide5

Coast of Dubrovnik/Croatia polluted by plastic materials discarded at sea, 2009

What doesplastic waste pollution look like?

slide7

The term "bioplastics" refers to a biodegradable plastics and/or plastics derived from renewable resources (the definition from European Bioplastics)

  • Interest in bio-materials has increased significantly due to concerns related to global climate change.
bioplastic
Bioplastic

Plastics: 265 M tons (2010) – Plastics Europe

Bioplastics: 0.724 M tons

biodegradable (non renewable resources) 428 000 t

plastics from renewable resources 296 000 t

Source/base: renewable or not renewable

Material: biodegradable or not biodegradable

renewable sources non biodegradable
Renewable sources - non-biodegradable
  • Historically, plastic was made from renewable resources / there was no petrochemical industry

1869. nitrocellulose – Hyatt billiard balls

1897. galalith –first Zagreb’s gramophone panel manufactured by Penkala

  • Today : bio-polyethylene
what is biodegradable plastic
What is biodegradable plastic?
  • Biodegradation is degradation caused by biological activity, especially activity of the enzymes
biodegradable plastics
Biodegradableplastics

Considering the source/base we distinguish:

  • natural polymers (PHA)
  • modified natural polymers (viscose, methyl cellulose)
  • synthetic polymers (PLA,polyesters)
slide13

What is compostable plastic?

Compostable plastic is one that meets all scientificallyrecognized standards ofcompostabilty

regardless of the origin of carbon.

Europeannorm

is EN 13432,

and USA norm is

ASTM D6400

astm d6400 main factors
ASTM D6400 – Main Factors
  • 1. Mineralization
  • 90 percent conversion to carbon dioxide, water and biomass through the action ofmicroorganisms
  • The same rate of degradation as other organic waste (ie. leaves, grass ...)
  • Time period of 180 days or less
  • 2. Fragmentation
  • Not more than 10% of the original dry weight of test material shall fail to pass through a 2 mm fraction sieve.
  • 3. The impact on the environment
  • No negative impact on flora and fauna
slide15

Biodegradablevs.compostable?

  • Compostable plastic is a subset of biodegradable plastic that will decompose in the conditions and time frames during compostingprocess 
  • Compostableplasticis always biodegradable
  • Biodegradableplastic is notalwayscompostable
slide16

What is bio-based

plastic ?

  • Can be natural polymer or synthetic plastic made from organic macromolecules that are derived from biological resources 
  • To be classified as a bio-based material it must be of organic origin and contain acertain percentage of new carbon derived from biological resources
  • This definition is the base of  ASTM D6866
d evelopment of bioplastic market main drivers
Development of bioplastic market - main drivers
  • Technical properties and functionality is selling
  • High consumer acceptance (eco marketing)
  • Organic recycling is a cost-efficient, new recycling option
slide20

Trenutno stanje

Bioplastics in Europe ( purpose)

slide25

Trendovi

The share of bioplastics in the global plastics market will recordsubstantial growth in the following years (planned annual growth of 44%)

slide29

Renewable raw materials for plastics.

  • Organic Recycling (Composting) - new option.
  • CO2 Recycling - for climate protection.
proces of certification
Proces ofcertification
  • Variety of different materials
  • What kind of criteria do we need?
  • Certification as an instrument of market competition
  • We have a defined system of certification for biodegradability and compostability of materials.
certification1
Certification
  • Certification - procedure by which a third party gives written assurance that a product, process or service conforms to specified requirements (EN 45020:2006 standardization and related activities)
  • Well-defined process in which a certification organization confirms the property of a plastic material, intermediate or product.
  • Biodegradableplastics is not easy to distinguish from non-degradable plastics.
  • Other ways of labelling are required in order for bioplastics to be used and disposed properly.
what is fueling the growth of bioplastics
What Is Fueling The Growth of Bioplastics?
  • Petroleum supplies are dwindling while demand for oil-based goods is rising
  • For every 4 barrels of oil used, only 1 new barrel is discovered.
  • Petrochemical-based plastics consume about 2.5 billion barrels of oil annually.
  • Supplies will run short within the next 20 to 100 years.
slide37

Governments and consumers are demanding action to reduce dependence on oil.

  • Increasing concerns over global warming, environmental pollution, toxic affects of some residual monomers and additives are driving legislation and consumer “backlash” against conventional plastics
more about the benefits of bioplastics
More about the benefits of bioplastics..
  • Reduces dependence on fossil raw materials
  • The conceptofbiorefinery-regional economy that has a source in bio-mass
  • Programs of CorporateSocialResposibility(CSR)
  • In the long run-economic perspective
  • Conventionalplasticswillrecordhighincreaseinprices

(50-80% in 2 years)

  • Bioplastics-enormouspotential for savings
slide39

Not If…But When

“It took 125 years to use the first trillion barrels of oil. We’ll use the next trillion in 30 years.

So, why should you care?”

-Chevron Ad

slide40

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE

BORIS MIKSIC

EFFECT OF EXTRUSION PARAMETERS ON PERFORMANCE

CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODEGRADABLE FILMS

DOCTORAL THESIS

Supervisor:

Dr. Sc. Mladen Sercer, professor

Zagreb, 2012.