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Cutnell/Johnson Physics 7 th edition. Classroom Response System Questions. Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat. Interactive Lecture Questions.

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slide1

Cutnell/JohnsonPhysics 7th edition

  • Classroom Response System Questions

Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat

Interactive Lecture Questions

slide2

12.1.1. Three thermometers are used to measure the temperature inside a closed, insulated box. Thermometer A is calibrated in Fahrenheit degrees, thermometer B in Celsius degrees, and thermometer C in Kelvins. When the thermometers reach thermal equilibrium with the interior of the box, B reads 40 C and C reads 233 K. Which one of the following statements is necessarily true?

a) Thermometer C should read 233 K.

b) Thermometer A must read –40 °F.

c) If the temperature of the interior of the box is increased until A reads 20 F, thermometer B will read 10 C.

d) Thermometer B should read 77 C.

e) If the temperature of the interior of the box is increased until C reads 293 K, thermometer A will read 36 F.

slide3

12.1.1. Three thermometers are used to measure the temperature inside a closed, insulated box. Thermometer A is calibrated in Fahrenheit degrees, thermometer B in Celsius degrees, and thermometer C in Kelvins. When the thermometers reach thermal equilibrium with the interior of the box, B reads 40 C and C reads 233 K. Which one of the following statements is necessarily true?

a) Thermometer C should read 233 K.

b) Thermometer A must read –40 °F.

c) If the temperature of the interior of the box is increased until A reads 20 F, thermometer B will read 10 C.

d) Thermometer B should read 77 C.

e) If the temperature of the interior of the box is increased until C reads 293 K, thermometer A will read 36 F.

slide4

12.1.2. Unsatisfied with the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, you decide to create your own. On your temperature scale, the ice point is 77 M and the steam point is at 437 M, where “M” stands for “my scale.” What temperature on your scale corresponds to 68 F?

a) 154 M

b) 168 M

c) 140 M

d) 136 M

e) 149 M

slide5

12.1.2. Unsatisfied with the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, you decide to create your own. On your temperature scale, the ice point is 77 M and the steam point is at 437 M, where “M” stands for “my scale.” What temperature on your scale corresponds to 68 F?

a) 154 M

b) 168 M

c) 140 M

d) 136 M

e) 149 M

slide6

12.2.1. Unsatisfied with the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, you decide to create your own. On your temperature scale, the ice point is 0.0 M and the steam point is at 366.1 M, where “M” stands for “my scale.” What temperature on your scale corresponds to 0 K?

a) 273.1 M

b) 500.0 M

c) 1000.0 M

d) 732.4 M

e) 633.9 M

slide7

12.2.1. Unsatisfied with the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, you decide to create your own. On your temperature scale, the ice point is 0.0 M and the steam point is at 366.1 M, where “M” stands for “my scale.” What temperature on your scale corresponds to 0 K?

a) 273.1 M

b) 500.0 M

c) 1000.0 M

d) 732.4 M

e) 633.9 M

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12.3.1. Which one of the following properties is not likely to be used as a temperature-sensitive property to construct a thermometer?

a) The volume of a liquid increases with increasing temperature.

b) A gas held within a constant volume container exhibits pressure changes with corresponding temperature changes.

c) The length of a metal rod changes linearly with temperature.

d) The mass of a solid decreases with increasing temperature.

e) The electrical resistance of a wire increases with increasing temperature.

slide9

12.3.1. Which one of the following properties is not likely to be used as a temperature-sensitive property to construct a thermometer?

a) The volume of a liquid increases with increasing temperature.

b) A gas held within a constant volume container exhibits pressure changes with corresponding temperature changes.

c) The length of a metal rod changes linearly with temperature.

d) The mass of a solid decreases with increasing temperature.

e) The electrical resistance of a wire increases with increasing temperature.

slide10

12.4.1. An artist wishes to insert a gold pin into a hole in an iron sculpture and have it held permanently. The pin is slightly larger than the hole. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of gold is slightly larger than that of iron. Consider the following options: (1) increase the temperature of the pin and the sculpture by the same amount, (2) decrease the temperature of the pin and the sculpture by the same amount, (3) increase the temperature of the pin and decrease the temperature of the sculpture, and (4) decrease the temperature of the pin and increase the temperature of the sculpture. Which of the choices would most likely accomplish the artist’s task?

a) 1

b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

e) 2 and 4

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12.4.1. An artist wishes to insert a gold pin into a hole in an iron sculpture and have it held permanently. The pin is slightly larger than the hole. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion of gold is slightly larger than that of iron. Consider the following options: (1) increase the temperature of the pin and the sculpture by the same amount, (2) decrease the temperature of the pin and the sculpture by the same amount, (3) increase the temperature of the pin and decrease the temperature of the sculpture, and (4) decrease the temperature of the pin and increase the temperature of the sculpture. Which of the choices would most likely accomplish the artist’s task?

a) 1

b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

e) 2 and 4

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12.4.2. The length of an aluminum pendulum in a certain clock is 0.2480 m on a day when the temperature is 23.30 C. This length was chosen so that the period of the pendulum is exactly 1.000 s. The clock is then hung on a wall where the temperature is 5.00 C and set to the correct local time. Assuming the acceleration due to gravity is the same at both locations, by how much time is the clock incorrect after one day at this temperature?

a) 69.3 s

b) 115 s

c) 87.2 s

d) 31.0 s

e) 11.5 s

slide13

12.4.2. The length of an aluminum pendulum in a certain clock is 0.2480 m on a day when the temperature is 23.30 C. This length was chosen so that the period of the pendulum is exactly 1.000 s. The clock is then hung on a wall where the temperature is 5.00 C and set to the correct local time. Assuming the acceleration due to gravity is the same at both locations, by how much time is the clock incorrect after one day at this temperature?

a) 69.3 s

b) 115 s

c) 87.2 s

d) 31.0 s

e) 11.5 s

slide14

12.4.3. A rod of length L is heated so that its temperature increases by T. As a result, the length of the rod increases by L. The rod is thencut into two pieces, one of length L/3 and one of length 2L/3. What is the ratio of the change in length of the rod of length 2L/3 to L of the original rod when its temperature is increased by T?

a) 1/3

b) 2/3

c) 1

d) 3/2

e) 3

slide15

12.4.3. A rod of length L is heated so that its temperature increases by T. As a result, the length of the rod increases by L. The rod is thencut into two pieces, one of length L/3 and one of length 2L/3. What is the ratio of the change in length of the rod of length 2L/3 to L of the original rod when its temperature is increased by T?

a) 1/3

b) 2/3

c) 1

d) 3/2

e) 3

slide16

12.5.1. Which one of the following statements is the best explanation for the fact that metal pipes that carry water often burst during cold winter months?

a) Both the metal and the water expand, but the water expands to a greater extent.

b) Water contracts upon freezing while the metal expands at lower temperatures.

c) The metal contracts to a greater extent than the water.

d) The interior of the pipe contracts less than the outside of the pipe.

e) Water expands upon freezing while the metal contracts at lower temperatures.

slide17

12.5.1. Which one of the following statements is the best explanation for the fact that metal pipes that carry water often burst during cold winter months?

a) Both the metal and the water expand, but the water expands to a greater extent.

b) Water contracts upon freezing while the metal expands at lower temperatures.

c) The metal contracts to a greater extent than the water.

d) The interior of the pipe contracts less than the outside of the pipe.

e) Water expands upon freezing while the metal contracts at lower temperatures.

slide18

12.5.2. Consider the four blocks made from the same material that are shown in the drawing. The sides have lengths of L, 2L, or 3L. Rank these blocks according to their expected increase, largest to smallest, in their volumes when their temperatures are increased by the same amount.

a) B > C > A > D

b) C > B > A > D

c) D > C > A > B

d) C > D > B > A

e) All would have the same increase in volume.

slide19

12.5.2. Consider the four blocks made from the same material that are shown in the drawing. The sides have lengths of L, 2L, or 3L. Rank these blocks according to their expected increase, largest to smallest, in their volumes when their temperatures are increased by the same amount.

a) B > C > A > D

b) C > B > A > D

c) D > C > A > B

d) C > D > B > A

e) All would have the same increase in volume.

slide20

12.7.1. A certain amount of heat Q is added to materials A, B, and C. The masses of these three materials are 0.04 kg, 0.01 kg, and 0.02 kg, respectively. The temperature of material A increases by 4.0 C while the temperature of the other two materials increases by only 3.0 C. Rank these three materials from the largest specific heat capacity to the smallest value.

a) A > B > C

b) C > B > A

c) B > A > C

d) B = C > A

e) A > B = C

slide21

12.7.1. A certain amount of heat Q is added to materials A, B, and C. The masses of these three materials are 0.04 kg, 0.01 kg, and 0.02 kg, respectively. The temperature of material A increases by 4.0 C while the temperature of the other two materials increases by only 3.0 C. Rank these three materials from the largest specific heat capacity to the smallest value.

a) A > B > C

b) C > B > A

c) B > A > C

d) B = C > A

e) A > B = C

slide22

12.7.2. A swimming pool has a width of 9.0 m and a length of 12.0 m. The depth of the water is 1.83 m. One morning, the temperature of the pool water was 15.0 C. The water then absorbed 2.00  109 J of heat from the Sun. What is the final temperature of the water? Assume no heat loss to the surroundings.

a) 16.9 C

b) 18.1 C

c) 17.4 C

d) 19.6 C

e) 20.2 C

slide23

12.7.2. A swimming pool has a width of 9.0 m and a length of 12.0 m. The depth of the water is 1.83 m. One morning, the temperature of the pool water was 15.0 C. The water then absorbed 2.00  109 J of heat from the Sun. What is the final temperature of the water? Assume no heat loss to the surroundings.

a) 16.9 C

b) 18.1 C

c) 17.4 C

d) 19.6 C

e) 20.2 C

slide24

12.7.3. Which of the following substances would be the most effective in cooling 0.300 kg of water at 98 C?

a) 0.100 kg of lead at 22 C

b) 0.100 kg of water at 22 C

c) 0.100 kg of glass at 22 C

d) 0.100 kg of aluminum at 22 C

e) 0.100 kg of copper at 22 C

slide25

12.7.3. Which of the following substances would be the most effective in cooling 0.300 kg of water at 98 C?

a) 0.100 kg of lead at 22 C

b) 0.100 kg of water at 22 C

c) 0.100 kg of glass at 22 C

d) 0.100 kg of aluminum at 22 C

e) 0.100 kg of copper at 22 C

slide26

12.7.4. Britanny’s normal body temperature is 36.5 C. When she recently became ill, her body temperature increased to 38.0 C. What was the minimum amount of heat required for this increase in body temperature if her weight is 561 N?

a) 2.96  106 J

b) 3.50  103 J

c) 4.98  104 J

d) 3.00  105 J

e) 7.60  105 J

slide27

12.7.4. Britanny’s normal body temperature is 36.5 C. When she recently became ill, her body temperature increased to 38.0 C. What was the minimum amount of heat required for this increase in body temperature if her weight is 561 N?

a) 2.96  106 J

b) 3.50  103 J

c) 4.98  104 J

d) 3.00  105 J

e) 7.60  105 J

slide28

12.7.5. Four 1-kg cylinders are heated to 100 C and placed on top of a block of paraffin wax, which melts at 63 C. There is one cylinder made from lead, one of copper, one of aluminum, and one of iron. After a few minutes, it is observed that the cylinders have sunk into the paraffin to differing depths. Rank the depths of the cylinders from deepest to shallowest.

a) lead > iron > copper > aluminum

b) aluminum > copper > lead > iron

c) aluminum > iron > copper > lead

d) copper > aluminum > iron > lead

e) iron > copper > lead > aluminum

slide29

12.7.5. Four 1-kg cylinders are heated to 100 C and placed on top of a block of paraffin wax, which melts at 63 C. There is one cylinder made from lead, one of copper, one of aluminum, and one of iron. After a few minutes, it is observed that the cylinders have sunk into the paraffin to differing depths. Rank the depths of the cylinders from deepest to shallowest.

a) lead > iron > copper > aluminum

b) aluminum > copper > lead > iron

c) aluminum > iron > copper > lead

d) copper > aluminum > iron > lead

e) iron > copper > lead > aluminum

slide30

12.8.1. Heat is added to a substance, but its temperature does not increase. Which one of the following statements provides the best explanation for this observation?

a) The substance has unusual thermal properties.

b) The substance must be cooler than its environment.

c) The substance must be a gas.

d) The substance must be an imperfect solid.

e) The substance undergoes a change of phase.

slide31

12.8.1. Heat is added to a substance, but its temperature does not increase. Which one of the following statements provides the best explanation for this observation?

a) The substance has unusual thermal properties.

b) The substance must be cooler than its environment.

c) The substance must be a gas.

d) The substance must be an imperfect solid.

e) The substance undergoes a change of phase.

slide32

12.8.2. What is the final temperature when 2.50  105 J are added to 0.950 kg of ice at 0.0 C?

a) 0.0 C

b) 4.2 C

c) 15.7 C

d) 36.3 C

e) 62.8 C

slide33

12.8.2. What is the final temperature when 2.50  105 J are added to 0.950 kg of ice at 0.0 C?

a) 0.0 C

b) 4.2 C

c) 15.7 C

d) 36.3 C

e) 62.8 C

slide34

12.8.3. By adding 25 kJ to solid material A, 4.0 kg will melt. By adding 50 kJ to solid material B, 6.0 kg will melt. Solid material C requires 30 kJ to melt 3.0 kg. Which of these materials, if any, has the largest value for the heat of fusion?

a) A

b) B

c) C

d) A = B

slide35

12.8.3. By adding 25 kJ to solid material A, 4.0 kg will melt. By adding 50 kJ to solid material B, 6.0 kg will melt. Solid material C requires 30 kJ to melt 3.0 kg. Which of these materials, if any, has the largest value for the heat of fusion?

a) A

b) B

c) C

d) A = B

slide36

12.8.4. Consider the system shown in the drawing. A test tube containing water is inserted into boiling water. Will the water in the test tube eventually boil?

a) Yes, heat is continually transferred to the

water inside the test tube and eventually it

will boil?

b) Yes, the pressure above the water in the test

tube will be reduced to less than atmospheric

pressure and cause the water to boil.

c) No, heat will only be transferred until the water in the test tube is 100 C.

d) No, the temperature of the water in the test tube will never reach 100 C.

slide37

12.8.4. Consider the system shown in the drawing. A test tube containing water is inserted into boiling water. Will the water in the test tube eventually boil?

a) Yes, heat is continually transferred to the

water inside the test tube and eventually it

will boil?

b) Yes, the pressure above the water in the test

tube will be reduced to less than atmospheric

pressure and cause the water to boil.

c) No, heat will only be transferred until the water in the test tube is 100 C.

d) No, the temperature of the water in the test tube will never reach 100 C.