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Introduction to Computing Concepts. What is a Computer?. An electronic device used to process data. The most common computer today? the Personal Computer. How Many Are There?. Parts of a Computer System. 4 Parts of a Computer System. Hardware the physical part of the computer Software

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what is a computer
What is a Computer?
  • An electronic device used to process data.
  • The most common computer today?
    • the Personal Computer.

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4 parts of a computer system
4 Parts of a Computer System
  • Hardware
    • the physical part of the computer
  • Software
    • the programs that run the hardware
  • Data
    • raw facts that are turned into useful information
  • People
    • the individuals that use computers (the user)
    • the software and hardware designers

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4 categories of hardware
4 Categories of Hardware
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    • Intel Pentium
  • Memory
    • ROM and RAM
    • Measured in bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, etc.
  • Input and Output devices
    • Moves data in and moves processed information out
  • Storage devices
    • Floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, CDROM, CDR, CDRW, DVD drives, Zip drives

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the cpu
The CPU
  • The Central Processing Unit
    • Turns data into useful information
    • Is connected to the motherboard
    • Is the brain of the computer
    • Not the same thing as “the box”

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memory
Memory
  • Read Only Memory (ROM)
    • Contains the information needed to boot the system
    • Nonvolatile (data cannot be changed)
  • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Working memory
    • Volatile (is lost when machine is turned off)
    • The more RAM, the faster the computer will run and the more it can do
    • The more software you can upgrade before having to upgrade hardware

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input devices
Input Devices
  • Accept data and instructions from the user
    • Keyboards
    • Mice and Trackballs
    • Touch-Screen Monitors
    • Scanners
    • Microphones
    • Digital Cameras
    • IPods

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output devices
Output Devices
  • Printer
  • Monitor
  • Hard drive
  • Floppy Disk drive
  • CD’s/DVD’s
  • Speakers, IPods
  • Key Drives (USB port hard drives)

Return processed information back to the user.

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external storage
“External” Storage
  • Holds data
  • Large storage capacity
    • measured in
      • Megabytes (Mb)
        • one million bytes
      • Gigabytes (Gb)
        • one billion bytes
      • Terabytes (Tb)
        • one trillion bytes
  • Nonvolatile

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common storage devices
Common Storage Devices
  • Hard drives
  • Floppy Disk drives
  • Tape drives
  • Optical drives
    • Compact Disks
      • CD-ROM, CD-R & CD-RW
    • Digital Versatile Disks
      • DVD, DVD-R & DVD-RW

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new storage devices
New Storage Devices
  • New Drives on the Horizon?
    • Plasma drives
    • Holographic imaging drives
    • Portable hard drives
      • Thumb drives
      • Memory sticks

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software
Software
  • A set of instructions
  • When executed tells the computer and its peripheral devices
    • what actions to perform and
    • in what order to perform them

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categories of software
Categories of Software
  • System Software
    • Operating systems, such as Windows (Vista, XP & 2000), DOS, Linux, iMac, AS400
  • Application Software & Suites
    • Word processing, Spreadsheets, Databases, Multimedia, Presentation & Graphics, Entertainment, Education, Utilities, Communications

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sizes of computers
Sizes of Computers
  • Supercomputers The Cray
  • Mainframes IBM 360, AS400
  • Minicomputers System 36/38

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sizes of computers cont
Sizes of Computers cont.
  • Microcomputers (PCs)
    • Workstation
    • Desktop
    • Laptop or Portable
  • Personal Digital Assistant (PDAs)
  • eBook
  • Tablet
  • Blackberry

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how data is stored
How Data is Stored
  • Binary Numbering System
    • Uses 2 digits: 0 and 1
    • All data is stored within the computer as 0’s and 1’s.
  • Decimal Numbering System
    • Uses 10 digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9
  • Other Numbering Systems

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bits bytes
Bits & Bytes
  • A Bit
    • The smallest possible unit of data.
    • In binary, either a 0 or a 1.
  • A Byte
    • A combination of 8 bits.
    • Used to represent up to 256 different values.
    • Used to represent characters.
    • Ex. 0100 0001 = A

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text codes
Text Codes
  • ASCII
    • An 8-bit coding system used on personal computers.
  • Unicode
    • A 16-bit coding system used to represent characters from almost every language in the world.

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tips for pc purchase
Tips for PC Purchase
  • Don’t skimp on memory
  • Purchase as much disk space as possible
  • Review online reviews of hardware & software
  • Don’t forget the bundled software
  • Don’t forget your surroundings
  • Insist on a 30-day unconditional return policy for full refund
  • Insist on a price guarantee; i.e., if the price goes down within 30 days, you are entitled to the rebate
  • Pay with a credit card
    • Increases leverage to enforce above items
    • May double the manufacturer’s warranty up to an additional year

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networks
Networks

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modems
Modems
  • Connect computers
    • Uses telephone lines from one location to another.
  • Measured in transfer rates of bits per second

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analog vs digital
Analog Vs. Digital

Sound No Sound

Example of an Analog Signal

Example of a Digital Signal

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modem
Modem

Tin can

Modem

Modem

Analog Signal

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networks27
Networks
  • Connect computers together so that they can communicate, exchange information, and pool resources.
  • Are connected by nodes
  • Categories
    • Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
    • Wide Area Network (WAN)
    • Internet

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network types
Network Types
  • File server networks
    • A central computer with a large hard disk serves as a common place to store and access files.
    • Processing is restricted to the file server.
    • Restricts access by nodes to file server.

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network types cont
Network Types (cont.)
  • Client/Server networks
    • Shares both files and programs with the nodes.
    • Processing is shared between the server and the nodes.
    • What you’re on in here!

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network types cont30
Network Types (cont.)
  • Peer-to-peer networks
    • All nodes share resources equally.
    • All nodes can act as file servers and can access common peripherals.

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disk and file management
Disk and File Management
  • A file is a set of instructions or data
    • Program file:
      • Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel
    • Data File:
      • Document or workbook

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disk and file management33
Disk and File Management
  • Copy, move, rename or delete a file
  • Folder
    • allows us to organize our files
    • May contain files and/or other folders
  • Back up strategy -- is critical
    • What (data), When (whenever it changes), Where (off site), How (Windows Explorer), and Who (you)
    • Back up your work!

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the internet

The Internet

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national science foundation nsf net
National Science Foundation (NSF) net
  • The complement to ARPANET.
  • Became higher-capacity network
  • The backbone of the Internet
  • Could handle the increased user load
  • Developed into a much larger network sharing information among
      • government,
      • business and
      • commercial enterprises.

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a sample internet connection

Router

TCP/IP

Internet

A Sample Internet Connection
  • Individual PCs are connected to a local area network.
  • Then connected via a router to the Internet using a TCP/IP connection
  • Then connected to other LANs.

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how the internet works
How the Internet Works
  • TCP/IP
    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    • The universal language of the Internet
    • Includes the specifications that identify individual computers and the exchange of data between computers.

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ip dns addresses
IP & DNS Addresses
  • IP (Internet Protocol) the 4-part numeric address that identifies each computer.
    • 10.2.2.166
  • DNS (Domain Name System) the name counterpart to the IP address.
    • mcmanusm@owc.edu
    • Easier to use than remembering number

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internet domains
Internet Domains

Examples: owc.edu uwf.edu yahoo.com

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email
Email
  • An exchange of electronic information
  • Can also include data files and program files to email messages
  • No expectation of privacy
  • Every e-mail address is unique
  • You can obtain an account
    • Through your school,
    • pay for an account through an ISP such as AOL, or
    • get free email accounts at sites like www.hotmail.com or www.yahoo.com orwww.gmail.com

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an email address
An Email Address
  • Consists of two parts
    • A username and a host computer

mcmanusm@owc.edu

Highest-level domain

Host computer

Username

A good Internet E-mail Address must contain the @ symbol

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other internet features
Other Internet Features
  • E-commerce is the exchange of goods and services via the Internet.
    • It requires a buyer and seller, and a ‘place to meet’
  • Advantages for the Seller
    • Open 24/7
    • Shoppers from anywhere
    • Virtual inventory is cheaper and extensive
    • Lower transaction costs
    • Target your customers
  • Advantages for the Buyer
    • Open 24/7
    • Never leave home
    • Easy to view and explore product line
    • Comparison shop
    • Web site knows you

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other internet features cont
Other Internet Features cont.
  • News & News Groups
    • A form of public bulletin board
    • Each news group is dedicated to one particular subject
    • Can quickly become an annoyance!

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other internet features cont44
Other Internet Features cont.
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
    • A tool used to copy files from one computer to another.
    • Allows you to upload content to a website

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other internet features cont45
Other Internet Features cont.
  • Don’t give out your name or anything personal!
  • Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
    • Chat rooms
    • a means of communicating with others in real time
    • Play Safe!

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other internet features cont46
The World Wide Web

Created in the late 1980’s at the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland

A method for incorporating footnotes, figures, and cross-references into online hypertext documents

Uses

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)

Other Internet Features cont.

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other internet features cont47
Other Internet Features cont.
  • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
    • a set of rules that provide the internal structure to the WWW
  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).
    • A page-description language that translates document formatting to formatting for the Web
  • HTTPS
    • Secure protocol for confidential transactions
  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
    • Internet address in a special format that can be read by HTTP.
    • Ex. http://www.yahoo.com

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other internet features cont48
Other Internet Features cont.
  • Web browsers make negotiating the Web easier.
    • Most well-known browsers
      • Internet Explorer 81.28%
      • Firefox (Mosaic/Mozilla) 12.96%
      • Safari 3.93%
      • Netscape Navigator (< 1%)
      • With IE and Firefox making up over 90% of the market

Percentages from PC Magazine, January 2007

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slide49

Accessing the Internet continued

  • High-Speed Data Links - Cost More!
  • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
    • A family of digital telecommunications protocols designed to allow high speed data communication over the existing copper telephone lines between end-users and telephone companies.
  • Hughes.net (Direcway)
    • Connection made through Satellite
  • Cox Cable
    • connection made through TV cable
    • up to ten times as fast as regular telephone lines
  • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
    • combines voice, data, and control signaling through a single dedicated circuit
    • can transfer data at rates up 128,000 bits per second.

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working and playing on the internet safety issues
Working and Playing on the Internet – Safety Issues
  • Courtesy
    • Netiquette
      • Guidelines
      • Netiquette by Virginia Shea
  • Ethics
    • FBI Internet Fraudulent
    • Urban Legends
    • Hoaxbusters

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  • Protection
    • Firewalls
      • used to control access to individual networks
    • Passwords
      • used to restrict access to files, programs or networks
      • A1234z is better than
        • Spouse’s name
        • Pet’s name
        • Last 4 SS numbers
        • Anniversary or Birthday dates
spam other annoying emails
SPAM & Other Annoying Emails
  • Forwarding
  • Chain letters
  • If you love me…
  • Scams
    • No kidding! I really know this person!
    • Kidney Transplant

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