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Chapter 9. Project Management. Introduction. Effective project management requires a well-structured project and diligent oversight A well-structured project consists of a series of finite, effective, well-defined tasks

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Chapter 9 l.jpg

Chapter 9

Project Management

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  • Effective project management requires a well-structured project and diligent oversight

  • A well-structured project consists of a series of finite, effective, well-defined tasks

  • The phases of a software development methodology define the tasks to be managed to some extent

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Project Management Responsibilities

  • Establish project schedule

  • Establish project budget

  • Structure the project into units of work

  • Assemble the project team

  • Assign units of work to individuals

  • Determine necessary resources

  • Carry out risk assessment

  • Monitor progress of project

  • Ensure resulting system meets requirements

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Software Metrics

  • Reasons to measure software:

    • To facilitate estimation of development time

    • To assess the productivity of developers

    • To assess the quality of the project

  • Current schools of thought:

    • Size-oriented

    • Function-oriented

    • Object-oriented

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Size-oriented Metrics

  • Attempt to quantify software projects by using the size of the project to normalize other quality measures

  • Possible data to collect:

    • number of lines of code

    • number of person-months to complete

    • cost of the project

    • number of pages of documentation

    • number of errors corrected before release

    • number of bugs found post release

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Problems with using Lines of Code (LOC) as Metric

  • Lines of source code comprising a project are not always good gages to the size and complexity of a project:

    • LOC to complete a task is language dependent

    • Code reuse reduces LOC but requires more effort, thus well-design system are penalized

    • Using a LOC based metric encourages programmers to create more LOC, which is ultimately less efficient to maintain

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Function-Oriented Metrics

  • Attempt to measure the functionality of a software system

  • Use a unit of measure called function point

  • Some possible function points:

    • Internal data structures

    • External data structures

    • User inputs

    • User outputs

    • Transformations

    • Transitions

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Issues with Using Function-Oriented Metrics

  • Requires that analysis and design of a project are completed before workload estimation can occur

  • Validity of the workload estimation is limited to the accuracy of the analysis and design

  • Complexity determination of function points is subjective

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Object-Oriented Metrics

  • Suggested measurements for object-oriented systems:

    • Number of scenario scripts

    • Number of key classes

    • Number of subsystems

  • Disadvantages:

    • Excludes a history-base of non-object-oriented projects

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Quality Control Metrics

  • Correctness

    • Defects per thousand LOC

  • Maintainability

    • Mean time to change

  • Integrity

    • Likelihood of thwarting an attack

  • Usability

    • Skill required of users

    • Time required to become proficient

    • Net increase in productivity

    • Users’ attitude toward system

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Other Project Management Concepts

  • Mythical staff-month

  • Configuration management

  • Change control

  • Configuration Audit

  • Configuration status reporting

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Project Planning

  • Project planning requires:

    • Defining the iterations of the project

    • Specifying subtasks

    • Determining the project schedule and allocating time for each subtask

    • Associating deliverables with each subtask to verify progress

    • Dividing the subtasks among the developers

    • Scheduling any interdependent tasks to minimize delays - use task network or PERT chart

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Monitoring Project Progress

  • Develop project milestones with associated deliverables to gage progress

  • Milestones should be created so that the project manager receives sufficient feedback at regular intervals

  • The feedback should take the form of a natural artifact of the development process

  • See figure 9.9 for a list of deliverables

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Four Stages of Team Development

  • Forming

  • Storming

  • Norming

  • Performing

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Conflict Resolution Strategies

  • Arbitration

  • Rules and regulations

  • Confrontation

  • Negotiation

  • Separation

  • Neglect

  • Coordination device

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Risk Management

  • Risk management provides a structured evaluation of a development project to draw attention to sources of risk

  • The need for risk management is demonstrated by the high failure rate for large-scale software development initiatives

  • Successful project management relies on the additional time that is built into the development schedule to accommodate some level of delay due to risk factors

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What is Risk?

  • A risk is any unanticipated condition or event that causes one or more tasks to be delayed, lengthened, or fail

  • Risks can delay or prevent the completion of a task or project as a whole

  • Two very general categories of risk will be identified here, technical and human risk

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Sources of Technical Risk

  • Project complexity

  • Project size

  • Use of state-of-the-art technology

  • Network vulnerability

  • Disgruntled employees

  • Potential for white-collar crime

  • Data attainability

  • Accuracy of data source

  • Need for high-quality graphics

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Development team





End users

Technical knowledge

Support for project

Agreement on system


Budgetary constraints

Project priority

Realistic expectations

Sources of Human Risk

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Consequences of Risk

  • Delay project

  • Compromise the quality of the project

  • Cause the project to fail

  • Cause the project to be too expensive to implement or run

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Reducing Risk

  • Early project evaluation

  • Early implementation of risky system aspects

  • Early use of new technology

  • Early resolution of class interaction problems