Family socio-economic status (SES) and child outcomes. Overview of the IFSSOCA Project Research example: How do educational inequalities in ALSPAC compare with those in the US? Elizabeth Washbrook ALSPAC – The First 21 Years Conference 18 April 2012.
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Overview of the IFSSOCA Project
Research example: How do educational inequalities in ALSPAC compare with those in the US?
ALSPAC – The First 21 Years Conference
18 April 2012
ESRC-funded project, April 2007-March 2012, £3.6 million
Director: Professor Paul Gregg
Interdisciplinary: Six strands involving researchers from medical, psychiatric and social science backgrounds, in and outside Bristol
Analysis of SES differentials in outcomes from birth to adolescence: risky behaviours, physical and mental health, school performance
Data development and dissemination
Study of SES disparities in alcohol and cannabis use; smoking; depression; conduct problems; self harm; sexual health outcomes
Change and stability in attainment from Key Stages 1 to 4
The effect of being identified as having Special Educational Needs on pupil achievement
Modelling the role of schools in determining pupils’ achievement (fixed vs random effects)
Cognitive trajectories of low and high ability children from different SES groups (the misleading effects of regression to the mean)
Duckworth, K., and Schoon, I. (2010). Progress and attainment during primary school: The roles of literacy, numeracy and self-regulation. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 1(3): 223-240.
The evolution of SES disparities in obesity and height
Prenatal predictors of adverse early childhood development (teen pregnancy alone is not enough)
The use of genetic variants to establish causal effects on educational and social outcomes of weight (none) and height (positive and negative)
Howe LD, Galobardes B, Sattar N, Hingorani AD, Deanfield J, Ness AR, Davey Smith G, Lawlor DA (2010). Are there socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, and are they mediated by adiposity? International Journal of Obesity 34(7):1149-59.
Acquisition, delivery and cleaning of unique data: 5 closest friends of each study child identified by name → network with 6961 links
Similarities between children that lead to friendships (homophily): IQ, aspirations and risky behaviours but not obesity, parental income or social class
Mapping the structure of friendship networks (density, centrality and popularity): structures vary substantially across schools
Burgess, S., and Umaña-Aponte, M. (2011). Raising your sights: the impact of friendship networks on educational aspirations. CMPO Working Paper 11/271, University of Bristol
Identification of causal effects and Mendelian randomization (MR) using genetic instrumental variables (IVs)
The importance and treatment of non-random attrition in cohort data
Multilevel models with non-independent residuals
Clarke, PS and Windmeijer, F (2010). Identification of causal effects on binary outcomes using structural mean models. Biostatistics 11(4), 756-770.
Comparing disparities in early childhood across countries: US, Canada, Australia
Comparing SES gradients across cohorts in Britain
Mechanisms relating SES to educational outcomes: the role of attitudes, behaviours and beliefs
Relating early SES differentials to adult social mobility
Washbrook, E, Waldfogel, J, Corak, M, Bradbury, B and Ghanghro, A (Forthcoming). The Development of Young Children of Immigrants in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Child Development.
SES Gradients in Skills during the School Years Katherine Magnuson, Jane Waldfogel and Elizabeth WashbrookForthcoming in From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage.J. Ermisch, M. Jäntti, & T. Smeeding (eds)
Focus is the evolution of SES disparities in school achievement between 4 and 14 in ALSPAC and a contemporaneous US cohort
US ECLS-K cohort
Multiple imputation used to deal with missing data (ALSPAC pupils in state schools at least once, N=12,986)
Evidence of widening academic achievement gaps in ALSPAC between 7 and 14, with greater widening after age 11.
This holds for maths and reading, for income and education, and for raw and standardized scores.
We hypothesize this is related to greater sorting at the secondary than the primary level.
US gaps are larger at school entry. Inequalities narrow in the first years of schooling, then return to their original values by age 14.
The rapid growth in inequality of outcomes in Britain after age 11 does not appear to hold in the US in the same way.