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Z 519: Information Analytics. Social Statistics: Introduction. Social Statistics. Statistics describes a set of tools and techniques for describing, organizing and interpreting information or data. Do we need statistics? When and Why?. Why we need statistics.

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Z 519: Information Analytics


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z 519 information analytics

Z519: Information Analytics

Social Statistics: Introduction

social statistics
Social Statistics
  • Statistics describes a set of tools and techniques for describing, organizing and interpreting information or data.
  • Do we need statistics? When and Why?
why we need statistics
Why we need statistics
  • Everybody relies on data in one way or another:
    • corporate presidents decide company policy based on quarterly sales figures
    • politicians decide on campaign strategy based on polls
    • teachers decide grading curves based on a bell curve
    • you and I decide whether to smoke or not based on health records of other people
  • Therefore, we need a comprehensive and understandable way to deal with data:
  • Statistics is the study of making sense of data.
descriptive statistics
Descriptive statistics
  • Used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data

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descriptive statistics1
Descriptive statistics
  • How can you describe this table?

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inferential statistics
Inferential statistics
  • Make inferences from a smaller group of data to a possible larger one
    • Sample: a smaller group of data
    • Population: the whole group of a certain subject

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population sample
Population & Sample
  • population
    • the set of all photographs of Mars
    • the set of heights of people in the US Army
    • the set of all measurements of water quality taking from the Hudson river
    • the set of all problems that can be solved using statistics.
  • sample
    • the pictures selected from a specific region of Mars
    • the heights of people in a particular division of the US Army
    • the set of water measurements of the Hudson River taken on 7/24/2009
    • the statistical problems we are solving in this class

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steps for statistical analysis
Steps for statistical analysis
  • Problem definition what is the population of interest, and what are the variables that are to be investigated
  • Data collection describe and select the sample from the population
  • Data analysis make some statistical inferences from the sample about the population
  • Analysis Reporting report the inference together with a measure of reliability for the inference where we use the term variable to mean a characteristic or property of an individual population where the observations can vary.

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an example
An example
  • Example: A tax auditor is responsible for 25,000 accounts. How many accounts are in error?
  • Defining the problem: The entire population consists of all 25,000 accounts. Our goal is to obtain a reasonable estimate for the number of accounts that are, in all likelihood, in error. Our variable x counts whether an account is in error.
  • Data collection and summary: The auditor decides to select 2000 accounts at random, tests each of these, and finds that 84 of them are in error.
  • Data analysis: In this case, the likely theory involves computing 84/2000 = 4.2%.
  • Analysis reporting: Based on our data analysis we infer that approximately 4.2% of the accounts will be in error.

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tools
Tools
  • Excel
  • Excel Toolpak
  • SPSS/PASW

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excel toolpak 1
Excel Toolpak (1)
  • Click the Microsoft Office Button , and then click Excel Options.
  • Click Add-Ins, and then in the Manage box, select Excel Add-ins.
  • Click Go.
  • In the Add-Ins available box, select the Analysis ToolPak check box, and then click OK.
  • If you get prompted that the Analysis ToolPak is not currently installed on your computer, click Yes to install it.
  • After you load the Analysis ToolPak, the Data Analysis command is available in the Analysis group on the Data tab.

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excel toolpak 2
Excel Toolpak (2)
  • Powerful, reliable, accessible, easy, and free

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formula
Formula

How does it work in Excel?

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basics of a spreadsheet
Basics of a Spreadsheet
  • So let's get started digging into what makes a spreadsheet work. Spreadsheets are made up of:
    • columns
    • Rows
    • cells
  • In each cell there may be the following types of data:
    • text (labels)
    • number data (constants)
    • formulas (mathematical equations)

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column
Column

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Row

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Cell

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types of data
Types of Data

ALL formulas MUST begin with an equal sign (=).

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formulas sum
Formulas – SUM
  • The Sum function takes all of the values in each of the specified cells and totals their values. The syntax is: =SUM(first value, second value, etc)

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formulas average
Formulas – AVERAGE
  • The average function finds the average of the specified data. The syntax is as follows =Average(first value, second value, etc.)

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formulas max min
Formulas – MAX/MIN
  • MAX: This will return the largest (max) value in the selected range of cells.
  • MIN: This will return the smallest (Min) value in the selected range of cells.

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formulas count
Formulas – COUNT
  • This will return the number of entries (actually counts each cell that contains number data) in the selected range of cells.

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