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Statement of Cash Flows Financial Planning. Professor André Farber. Sources of Cash Inflow and Cash Outflow. Operating Activities Sales of goods and services. Investing Activities Sale of fixed assets Sales of LT financial assets.

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Statement of Cash Flows Financial Planning


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    1. Statement of Cash FlowsFinancial Planning Professor André Farber

    2. Sources of Cash Inflow and Cash Outflow Operating ActivitiesSales of goods and services Investing ActivitiesSale of fixed assetsSales of LT financial assets Financing ActivitiesIssuance of stocks and bondsLT and ST borrowing CASH Operating ActivitiesPurchase of suppliesSelling, general and administrative expensesTax expenses Investing ActivitiesCapital expenditures and acquisitionsLT financial investments Financing ActivitiesRepurchage of stocks and bondsRepayment of debtDividend payment CF from financing activities CF from operating activities CF from investing activities ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    3. Statement of Cash Flows Cash Flow from Operating Activities + Cash Flow from Investing Activities = Free Cash Flow + Cash Flow from Financing Activities = Change in Cash ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    4. Summarized (managerial) balance sheet Liabilities Stockholders' equity (SE) Interest-bearing debt (D) Assets Fixed assets (FA) Working capital requirement (WCR) Cash (Cash) FA + WCR + Cash = SE + D Working capital requirement : definition + Accounts receivable+ Inventories+ Prepaid expenses - Account payable- Accrued payroll and other expenses Interest-bearing debt: definition + Long-term debt+ Current maturities of long term debt+ Notes payable to banks ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    5. Income statement REV Revenue CGS Cost of goods sold SGA Selling, general and administrative expenses Dep Depreciation EBIT Earnings before interest and taxes Int Interest expenses TAX Taxes Tc Tax rate NI Net income Balance sheet FA Fixed assets, net AR Accounts receivable INV Inventories CASH Cash & cash equivalents SE Equity capital LTD Long term debt AP Accounts payable STD Short-term borrowing Statement of retained income DIV Dividendes Notations ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    6. Income statement and balance sheet • Income statement • EBIT = REV - CGS - SGA - Dep • TAX = Tc (EBIT - Int) • NI = EBIT - Int - TAX • Balance sheet equation • FA + AR + INV + CASH = SE + LTD + AP + STD Working capital requirement: WCR  AR + INV - AP =(Current assets - CASH) - (Current liabilities - STD) Summarised balance sheet: FA + WCR + CASH = SE + D (D = LTD + STD) ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    7. Cash flow statement : indirect method FA + WCR + CASH = SE + D FA = AQ - Dep AQ = Acquisitions - Disposals (investing & divesting) SE = NI - DIV + K K = New issuance of capital (NI + Dep - WCR) - (AQ) + (K + D -DIV) = CASH Cash flow from operating activities Cash flow from investing activities Cash flow from financing activities = + + ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    8. + Cash collection from customers - Cash payment to suppliers and employees - Cash paid for interest - Cash paid for taxes = Cash flow from operating activities + Cash flow from investing activities + Cash flow from financing activity = CASH REV - AR CGS + INV + SGA - AP Int TAX (REV-CGS-SGA-Int-TAX)- WCR -AQ K + D - DIV Statement of cash flows: direct method NI+Dep-WCR (NI + Dep - WCR) + (-AQ) + (K + D - DIV) = CASH ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    9. Free Cash Flow • Free Cash Flow = Cash flow from operating activities + Cash flow from investing activities • Calculating free cash flows of all equity firm: Free Cash Flow = EBIT(1-TC) + Dep - WCR - AQ • Statement of cash flows for all-equity firm: Free Cash Flow = DIV - K + Cash ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    10. Financial Forecasting EBITDA-Depreciation=EBIT -Taxes +Net Income Income Statement Statement ofCash Flows CF from operating activities CF from investing activities CF from financing activities UpdateBalance Sheet ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    11. Financial Planning • Based on ∆Revenues • Assumptions on key ratios relating Revenues to: • Gross margin: m = EBITDA /Revenues • Working capital requirement: w =  WCR /  Revenues • Net fixed assets: a =  NFA /  Revenues • Financial policy: • Payout ratio p = DIV/Net Income • Depreciation d = Depreciation / Fixed Assets-1 • Environment: • Tax rate TC • Cost of debt i ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    12. Data Gross margin: m = 30% WCR: w = 20% Net fixed assets: a = 30% Payout ratio p = 50% Depreciation d = 10% Tax rate TC = 40% Cost of debt i = 10% • Revenues year 0: 2,000 • Growth rate year 1: 25% • Balance sheet end year 0 ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    13. Step 1: Income statement ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    14. Step 2: Statement of Cash Flows ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    15. Step 3: Update balance sheet ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    16. The Full Model ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    17. Sustainable growth • What growth rate can a company achieve without requirement additional external equity? •  Assets = (a+w) Revenues •  Assets =  Book Equity +  Debt • =  Book Equity +  Book Equity • = Net Income (1 – Payout)(1 + ) • = (Revenues) (Profit Margin)(1-Payout)(1+ ) • g = Revenues / Revenues • = (Profit Margin)(1 – Payout)(1+ ) / (a+w) ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows

    18. Sustainable Growth: example • Back to previous example: • a+w = 0.30 • Net Profit margin = 15% • Payout ratio = 50% •  = Debt /  Book Equity = 2/3 • g = [15% (1 - 0.50) (1+2/3) ] / 0.30 = 41.67% ExMaFin 2006 Statement of Cash Flows