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Advances in radioactive ion beam R&D at GANIL. P. Delahaye, GANIL. Talk overview. Radioactive accelerated beams at GANIL Present performances of SPIRAL Metallic ions beams SPIRAL FEBIAD beams SPIRAL 2 Laser ion source Charge breeding : The EMILIE project

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talk overview
Talk overview
  • Radioactive acceleratedbeamsat GANIL
    • Present performances of SPIRAL
  • Metallic ions beams
    • SPIRAL FEBIAD beams
    • SPIRAL 2 Laser ion source
  • Charge breeding: The EMILIE project
    • collaborative efforts towards EURISOL
radioactive accelerated beams

3 kW

1,5 kW

Radioactive acceleratedbeams

Present GANIL facility


Production cave


A. Prost driving kart in the early 1970’s



Of radioactive ions


« Cyclotron d’ions de moyenne énergie »


Up to 20 AMeV




Stable ions

Heavy ion sources

Ne, Ar, Kr, N, O, F

Heavy ion fragmentation on graphite targets

12C to 78Kr up to 95AMeV

rex isolde commemoration
REX-ISOLDE commemoration
    • REX does not use an ECR ion source
      • It almostdidconsiderit! (2003-2008)
      • SPIRAL @ GANIL alreadydoes and will!
    • REX does not use a CW post-accelerator
      • But a pulsed LINAC
      • SPIRAL and SPIRAL2 @ GANIL (will) do!
      • HIE-ISOLDE might use a CW LINAC too!

Comparison of charge breeding techniques during FP6

ecr multi ionization in nanogan 3

Cold transfertube

He, N, O, F, Ne, Ar, Kr

ECR multi-ionization in Nanogan 3
  • Better ionisation efficiencies for gases!


A. C. Villari et al., Nuclear Physics A 787 (2007) 126c–133c

To the cost of universality

post acceleration in cime
Post-acceleration in CIME
  • The cyclotron has an intrisichigh mass resolving power
    • R=m/dm usually5 103 to 104
    • It is a CW machine
    • It goes up to 20AMeV! With the correct A/q
    • BUT complicated injection: 30% efficiency

CIME workingdiagram

the past and the future metallic beams a hot topic for spiral
The past… and the future!Metallicbeams: a ‘hot topic’ for SPIRAL
  • Metallic (+ halogen + non metallic) elements
    • effusion times from ISOL targets are usually a penalty compared to rare gases
    • High ionizationefficienciesrequirededicateddevelopments (FEBIAD or RILIS), whereas for rare gasesalmostany ECRIS can do the job
  • N+ beams for post-acceleration
    • SPIRAL concept: 0 to n+ ionizationefficiencies are veryhigh for rare gases
    • BUT application to metallicbeams not straightforward as ECRIS are cold wall sources
    • 1+ n+ (=charge breeding) worksfairlywellwith EBIS but pulsedbeams (not suited to GANIL experiments)
    • 1+ n+ with ECRIS workswell in CW evenwithhighintensities but severalweaknesses:
      • Comparablylower charge states
      • Beampurity not guaranted
      • Lowefficiencieswith light metallicbeams: <5% up to K
metallic ion beams
Metallic ion beams
  • Metallicbeams @ SPIRAL
1 n solution
1+ N+ solution

Present system

0 to n+ transformation

Cold surfaces


1+ to n+ transformation

FEBIAD: 1+ beamsfrom condensable elementswithTfusion<2000°C

Phoenix ECRIS: 1+ to n+ transformation


M. Marie Jeanne, PhD thesis , UJF Grenoble, 2009


FEBIAD source: VADIS from CERN

Goal: first ionization of gases and condensable elements

Technicalrequirement: Target and ion source surfaces T(K)>~2300

Coupling to the SPIRAL target

Thermal Calculations

FEBIAD + SPIRAL 1 target

F. Pellemoine and C. Bathe-Dejean, O. Bajeat

L. Penescu et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(2010)02A906


latest tests

Tests in SIRa

  • in May with58Ni@ 75 AMeV
  • in July with36Ar @95AMeV


Latest tests


Twobeam times withslight changes

1st test beam time

Ta transfer tube wascutbecause of mechanicalconstraints, and finallymelted down!

Metallicbeamsfrom a FEBIAD ion source


Transfer tube broke down during the first tests

latest tests1

Tests in SIRa

  • in May with58Ni@ 75 AMeV
  • in July with36Ar @95AMeV


Latest tests


Twobeam times withslight changes

Bellow (IPNO design)

2nd test beam time

Metallicbeamsfrom a FEBIAD ion source


Transfer tube wasreplaced by a new including a bellow

Source isstillworking, lack of conditionning made lowefficienciesduring the beam time

deduced 1 intensities 1 st test
Deduced 1+ intensities 1st test



From Gamma line intensitiesat saturation

Mostly >105pps!

Despite the reliability and temperatures issues, the target ion source exhibits performances as good as one couldwish!


Release efficiency(diffusion + effusion delays)

Ionisation efficiency

deduced 1 intensities 2 nd test
Deduced 1+ intensities 2nd test



From Gamma line intensitiesat saturation taken on line

  • Ionisation efficiency ~10% of the nominal
  • lack of conditioning time
  • misbehaving extraction optics
  • Monitoredwith20Ne and verifiedwith35Ar (radioactive)
new elements to come
New elements to come…
  • Alreadymore beamsthanpresentlydeliveredat SPIRAL!
  • Most beams have projectedintensities > 106pps for 1.5kW primarybeam power

Ionized as stable beams

Ionised as radioactive beams

Existingbeamsat SPIRAL

Main milestones

● First 1+ beams

First post-accelerated beams

New beamsfrom FEBIAD (LIRAT, IBE): 2013

New beamsfrom Booster (CIME energies): end of 2014

outlook b n angular correlations at lirat
Outlook:b-n angularcorrelationsat LIRAT
  • A wide program of measurements
    • Up to 10 Tz=1/2 emittersavailablewithrequiredintensities (>107pps)
      • Vud values frommirror nuclides
    • New candidates for other types of measurements
      • Exoticcurrents in beta decay
  • Mass selection: MR-TOF spectrometer

Support fromUniversity Greifswald (R. Wolf and L. Schweikhard) for developing a MR-TOF-MS for LIRAT

Design values:

Mass resolving power >10000

Space charge capacity > 104 ions per bunch

First simulations N. Bidault


metallic ion beams1
Metallic ion beams
  • Metallicbeams @ SPIRAL 2
the spiral 2 construction
The SPIRAL 2 construction


  • Figures

SPIRAL 2 phase 1

SPIRAL 2 phase 2


spiral2 facility
SPIRAL2 facility

RI produced by fission process, fusion evaporation residues or transfer products

High intensity stable primary beams : P, D, 3,4He, heavy ions with A/Q=3 (1mA-5mA)

Energy range : from 2MeV/u up to 20MeV/u (D), 14.5MeV/u (HI), 33MeV (P)

latest news from the laser ion source



10 kHz Nd:YAG

Pump laser

100 W




Ti:Sa 3

Ti:Sa 2


x 2

Ti:Sa 1


x 3

Latest news from the laser ion source

GANIL Ion Source usingElectron Laser Excitation

GISELE Laser system

N. Lecesne, O. Bajeat, B. Osmond, M. Sjödin

3 TiSa cavities from TRIUMF

2 Tripler cavities from Mainz U.

TiSa lasers: 200 – 500n & 700 – 1000nm

first laser ionization
First laser ionization
  • TiSa laser, 20m transport path and hot cavity

July 2011

  • First Ga+ ion beam (+ Mainz U.) in July 2011
  • Target and Ion Source for SPIRAL2: UCx + RILIS
  • Next beams: Sn, Zn, Y, In
  • N. Lecesne, Proceedings of the ICIS 2011 conf. to appear in RSI

The EMILIE project

« Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short Lived Isotopes for EURISOL »

Charge breeding for ISOL facilities

P. Delahaye, A. Galata, J. Angot, G. Ban, L. Celona, J. Choinski, P. Gmaj, A. Jakubowski, P. Jardin, T. Kalvas, H. Koivisto, V. Kolhinen, T. Lamy, D. Lunney, L. Maunoury, A. M. Porcellato, G. F. Prete, O. Steckiewicz, P. Sortais, T. Thuillier, O. Tarvainen, E. Traykov, F. Varenne, and F. Wenander

charge breeding studies during fp6


ISOL target

1+ ion source

1+ n+

1+ separator

A/q separator

Charge breedingstudiesduring FP6
  • Matching the A/q acceptance of the post-accelerator
  • Higher charge states corresponds to more compact post-accelerator and / or higher energies

ECRIS and EBIS werecompared

Advantages and drawbacks wereidentified

1+ N+: P. Delahaye et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 46(2010)421

charge breeding techniques comparison
Charge breeding techniques comparison
  • 132Sn > 1013 ions/s
  • ECRISbest suited:
  • Not space charge limited
  • CW device
  • 136Sn ~ 105 ions/s
  • EBIS best suited
  • Higher charge states
  • Higher purity

Phoenix ECRIS

Test stand at LPSC and ISOLDE


Operational at REX-ISOLDE

Efficiency 1-20% depending on Z

suggestion made for eurisol
Suggestion made for EURISOL

P. Delahaye, O. Kester, C. Barton, T. Lamy, M. Marie-Jeanne, F. Wenander Eur. Phys. J. A 46(2010)421

NSCL - like

CW EBIS charge breeder

Lessdead time, piling-up and fakecoincidenceproblems

REX-EBIS and MINIBALL: data acquisition problemswithintensities as low as 105-106pps

CW beams!

P. Delahaye, EMILIE Kick - off meeting

wp2 concept of cw ebis charge breeder
WP2Concept of CW EBIS charge breeder

Post-accelerated beams for SPIRAL 2

Baseline scenario: Phoenix ECR charge breeder from LPSC

Limitation in energy, especially for the second fission bump


Not favourable for transferexperiments!!

Solution: EBIS + buffer trap = CW EBIS

ISCOOL like RF trap




No intensitydecrease

Up to 15 AMeV


Pulseddevice (10-500ms pulses)

wp3 improvement of the phoenix ecr charge breeder performances
WP3Improvement of the Phoenix ECR charge breeder performances

Example: FP6 studywith a Phoenix ECRIS 14GHz, testedat CERN

P. Delahaye and M. Marie-Jeanne, NIMB 266 (2008) 4429

PhD M. Marie-Jeanne, Université Joseph Fourier, 2009

Optimizing injection for light masses

ISOLDE test stand Daresbury ECRIS

ISOLDE test stand Daresbury ECRIS

Optimizing injection for metallic ions

Given by CCLRC to GANIL (Feb. 2010)

Given by CCLRC to GANIL (Feb. 2010)



Phoenix ECRIS

T. Lamy, J. Angot and T. Thuillier, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79 0A2909 (2008) and ref. therein.

spiral phoenix charge breeder upgrade and installation
SPIRAL:Phoenix charge breeder upgrade and installation

Remotecontrolled injection tube

Modified HF injection

UHV design


L. Maunoury

C. Feierstein

E. Traykov

P. Delahaye


R. Vondrasek


T. Lamy

Latest tests at ANL: up to 9.6% Na8+ and 17.7% for K10+

  • Metallicbeams are a ‘hot’ topic for GANIL
    • New radioactive beamsfrom the ISOLDE VADIS at SPIRAL
    • First laser ionized stable beams for SPIRAL 2
  • Charge breeding R&D isgoing on
    • Phoenix on-line at SPIRAL
    • Collaborative R&D for EURISOL within EMILIE

GANIL - SPIRAL 2 as a multi-user facility

Fusion – evaporation

(S3 and thick targets)


  • Nb target fragmentation: in targetyieldsfrom 5E5 pps (74Rb) to 2E7pps (58Cu)

“Other beams from other targets” (SPIRAL 2)

6He (BeO), 140(C), 29P, 30,31S (SiC) etc


N - induced fission 238U

MG Saint Laurent et al, EXON 2009 AIP conf proceedings

40MeV d on 12C converter; HD UCx target


thanks a lot for your attention
Thanks a lot for your attention

And thanks a lot to mycolleagues

O. Bajeat

C. Couratin LPC Caen / GANIL (PhDThesis)

M. Dubois

P. Delahaye

H. Franberg - Delahaye

P. Jardin

N. Lecesne

L. Maunoury

B. Osmond

M. G. St Laurent

M. Sjödin

J. C. Thomas

E. Traykov

T. Stora

F. Wenander

L. Penescu

E. Lienard

D. Durand

R. Vondrasek

T. Lamy


ISOL beams for GANIL