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24 Jan 2008 TCSS431: Network Security Stephen Rondeau Institute of Technology Lab Administrator. Windows Forensics. Agenda. Forensics Background Operating Systems Review Select Windows Features Vectors and Payloads Forensics Process Forensics Tools Demonstration. Forensics Background.

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24 jan 2008 tcss431 network security stephen rondeau institute of technology lab administrator
24 Jan 2008

TCSS431: Network Security

Stephen Rondeau

Institute of Technology

Lab Administrator

Windows Forensics
agenda
Agenda
  • Forensics Background
  • Operating Systems Review
  • Select Windows Features
  • Vectors and Payloads
  • Forensics Process
  • Forensics Tools Demonstration
forensics background
Forensics Background
  • Inspection of computer system for evidence of:
    • crime
    • unauthorized use
  • Evidence gathering/preservation techniques for admissibility in court of law
  • Consideration of suspect's level of expertise
  • Avoidance of data destruction or compromise
operating system review
Operating System Review
  • What does an OS do?
operating system review1
Operating System Review
  • What does an OS do?
    • starts itself
    • low-level management of:
      • interrupts, time, memory, processes, devices (storage, communication, keyboard, display, etc.)‏
    • higher-level management of:
      • file system, users, user interface, apps
    • addresses issues of fairness, efficiency, data protection/access, workload balancing
select windows features
Select Windows Features
  • Kernel vs. User Mode
  • Kernel features (architecture)‏
    • device drivers
    • installable file system
    • object security
  • Services
  • User accounts, passwords and privileged groups
  • Security policies
slide7

Computing

Device

input

output

Hub

Computing Devices: Simplistic

  • Computing Device
    • takes some input
    • processes it
      • OS, services, applications
    • provides some output
  • Network
    • connects device
  • Data
slide8

Computing Devices: Reality

In

Human

K/M/touch,etc.

Out

Human

A/V

Data

Scanner/GPS

In/Out

Data

Storage Device, PC/Express Card,

Network, Printer, Etc.

slide9

Computing Devices: Connections

  • removable media
    • floppy,CD/DVD,flash,microdrive
  • PC/Express Card
  • wired
    • serial/parallel,USB,Firewire,IDE/SATA,SCSI/SAS
    • twisted pair
  • wireless
    • radio (802.11, cellular, Bluetooth)‏
    • Infrared (IR)‏
    • Ultrasound
vectors and payloads
Vectors and Payloads
  • Vector: route used to gain entry to computer
    • via a device without human intervention
    • via an unsuspecting or willing person's actions
  • Payload: what is delivered via the vector
    • malicious code
    • may be multiple payloads
    • spyware, rootkits, keystroke loggers, bots, illegal software, spamming, etc.
forensics process
Forensics Process
  • Assess (after permission is granted)‏
    • determine how to approach affected system(s)‏
    • inspect physical environment
    • watch out for anti-forensics, booby-traps
    • consider how to stop computer processing
  • Acquire
    • capture volatile data
    • copy hard drive
  • Analyze
volatile data
Volatile Data
  • All of RAM, plus paging area
  • Logged on users
  • Processes (regular and services)‏
  • Process memory
  • Buffers
  • Clipboard
  • Network Information (incoming and outgoing)‏
  • Command history
nonvolatile data
Nonvolatile Data
  • Partitions
  • Files
    • hidden, streams
  • Registry Keys
  • Recycle Bin
  • Scheduled Tasks
  • User Account and Group Information
  • Logs
what to look for
What to Look For
  • Know baseline system: what to expect of good system
  • Malware Footprint
    • in logs
    • on file system (changed dates/sizes, hidden)‏
    • in registry
    • in startup areas
    • in services list
    • in network connections
  • Abnormality: function, performance, traffic patterns
  • Cross-check with multiple tools
slide15

Microsoft Tools

  • Basic
      • Prevent: Windows Update, Time Service, Routing and Remote Access, LocalService, NetworkService, Runas
      • Inspect: net user/group/localgroup, Active Directory Users and Groups, Event Viewer, EventCombMT, systeminfo, auditpol, Security Configuration Manager
      • Fix: Malicious Software Removal, Security Configuration Manager
  • Network tools
      • netstat -anob, nbtstat, ping, tracert, arp, netsh, ipconfig
  • File
      • dir /ah, dir /od, dir /tc, findstr, cacls
  • Services
      • net start/stop, sc, services.msc
  • Process:
      • tasklist, taskkill, schtasks
external tools
External Tools
  • www.sysinternals.com
    • variety of Windows tools to monitor and analyze
  • www.e-fense.com: Helix
    • Windows tools
      • Windows Forensics Toolkit™
      • trusted commands
      • RAM/disk imaging, password recovery tools
      • some www.sysinternals.com tools
    • bootable to Knoppix with many file system tools
  • www.rootkit.com
advice
Advice
  • For your systems:
    • Prevent:
      • update, monitor, block, isolate, backup
    • Analyze:
      • find vectors and payloads
    • Recover:
      • off-network restore, re-install or re-image
      • block vectors and/or payload effects before going on-network
slide18

References

  • Windows Forensics and Incident Recovery, Harlan Carvey, Addison-Wesley 2005
  • Windows Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit , Harlan Carvey, Syngress 2007
  • File System Forensic Analysis,Brian Carrier, Addison-Wesley 2005
  • Rootkits, Greg Hoglund and James Butler, Addison-Wesley 2006