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The Adaptive use of Networks to Generate an Adaptive Task Force. ICCRTS 2008 Paper 021. Dr. Anne-Marie Grisogono , DSTO, Australia Mink Spaans, TNO, The Netherlands. The Challenge: Increased Complexity. Things are getting harder for defense – Increased

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the adaptive use of networks to generate an adaptive task force
The Adaptive use of Networks to Generate an Adaptive Task Force

ICCRTS 2008 Paper 021

Dr. Anne-Marie Grisogono, DSTO, AustraliaMink Spaans, TNO, The Netherlands

Mink Spaans

the challenge increased complexity
The Challenge: Increased Complexity

Things are getting harder for defense – Increased

  • Diversity of defense roles & security challenges more to deal with
  • Uncertainty and pace of change less time to adapt
  • Number of inter-related actors and effects less predictable
  • Number of constraints and public scrutiny less options
  • Therefore defense can’t be sure, in advance, of:
  • What it will have to do, and with who so can’t optimize
  • When it will have to do it so can’t prepare
  • How to ensure success and avoid failure so can’t control

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

how to deal with this complexity
How to deal with this Complexity?
  • The premium will be more on the ability to…
  • rapidly decide, as situations develop, what is to be done, how, who with, & how to measure success and failure
  • rapidly assemble tailored diverse (incl. non-defense elements) teams and get them operational and effective,
  • maintain effectiveness under unpredictable and rapidly evolving conditions, retaining ability to mount additional operations as needed

dynamic propertiesof the force that‘emerge’as a result of many decisions about structure, process, doctrine, personnel, equipment, training, ....

Requires Adaptivity

…rather than on the ability to do particular kinds of operations very well – which is the ‘usual’ kind of mission effectiveness

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

the implications of adaptivity
The Implications of adaptivity

Defense needs to understand

  • How to get better at being adaptive
  • What the limits are of traditional approaches
  • How to deal with Complexity and Adaptation at many levels
  • How to develop adaptive complex systems (rather than engineer complicated ones)
  • Consequences for all the DOTMLPF factors and for networking
  • How to Select, train and educate people to be adaptive
  • Implications for C2, ISR, NCW, EBO, national security, complex operations …
  • (and manage) the many System-of-System tradeoffs

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

our focus
Our focus

Adaptation framework

Adaptive Campaigning

Maturity

Levels

SAS-065

4 classes

5 levels

Several Scales

Previous (and ongoing) Work

CCRP

literature

Adaptive Networking

ICT network

Information network

Social

Impact on

Current Work

Force

Development

Force

Generation

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

force generation
Force Generation
  • the process of selecting force elements from the parent force(s) and the structuring, integration and training of them up to the required level for Force Employment.

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

various stages of developing maintaining and employing a force

Experimentation Support Systems

Modeling and simulation & Trials

Force-level

SoS Models

Various models of

operational contexts

System

Operational

Context

Models

Task-organized

systems

Force

Development

Context

Capability

Development

of component

systems

Force-level

SoS

Force

Employment

Capability

Development

of Networked SoS

Rapid tech

insertion

Force

Development

Force Generation

context

Force RT&S

Context

Customised

Deployable

force

New

capability

Feedback

Supports

Learning

Force level

Raise train & sustain

Spectrum of Component

capabilities

Organisationally Based

Force-level SoSs

Force Raise Train & Sustain

Unit-level

Force

Generation

Raise train & sustain

Various stages of developing, maintaining and employing a Force

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

the questions
The Questions
  • What are the desiredadaptivityproperties of the ForceGenerationprocess, thatwillresult in the intended output (aneffectivedeployableforcewith the desiredadaptivityproperties)
    • What are the desiredoutcomes of ForceGeneration
    • What are the keyprocessesthatinfluence these outcomes

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

a few observations
A few observations
  • Capabilities of the parent force contribute to and constrain what an actual deployed force can do.
  • The Force Generation process is the bridge between the parent force and the employed forces
  • Networks play an important role in Force Generation
    • Facilitate the selection of the right elements
    • Facilitate feedback mechanisms
  • Experimentation is crucial

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

intended output of the force generation process
Intended output of the Force Generation Process

An Effective, Integrated, Adaptive, Deployable, Sustainable task force, able to support organizational learning

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

intended output of the force generation process1
Intended output of the Force Generation Process
  • An Effective, Integrated, Adaptive, Deployable, Sustainable task force, able to support organizational learning
  • Effective  Enable and foster future effectiveness
  • Define Measures of Success and Failure well enough
  • Difficult: Multiple scales, dimensions, perspectives
  • Need to evolve during the operation
  • Feedback from Force Employment to Force Generation
  • Balance Long term and short term success

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

intended output of the force generation process2
Intended output of the Force Generation Process
  • An Effective, Integrated, Adaptive, Deployable, Sustainable task force, able to support organizational learning
  • Integrated  Integrate disparate force elements
  • Build trust
  • Build sense of collective identify
  • Create willingness to cooperate
  • Make best use of various elements  sum greater than its parts
  • Ability to plan and act in a coherent way
  • Coherence within and one and across several rotations

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

intended output of the force generation process3
Intended output of the Force Generation Process
  • An Effective, Integrated, Adaptive, Deployable, Sustainable task force, able to support organizational learning
  • Adaptive  Recognize need for change and
  • make effective changes in a timely way
  • Ability to maintain effective context-appropriate behavior
  • Requires many adaptive processes to function
  • Requires rich information sources to feed these processes
  • Requires ability to analyze complex dynamics
  • Requires Learning and Learning to Learn mechanisms

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

intended output of the force generation process4
Intended output of the Force Generation Process
  • An Effective, Integrated, Adaptive, Deployable, Sustainable task force, able to support organizational learning
  • Deployable  Meets Operational levels of Capability
  • Structures and processes in place
  • Effective Hand Over / Take Over
  • All systems in place

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

intended output of the force generation process5
Intended output of the Force Generation Process
  • An Effective, Integrated, Adaptive, Deployable, Sustainable task force, able to support organizational learning
  • Sustainable  Rate of consumptions consistent with
  • capacity to support force
  • Ability to identify changes and adapt rate
  • of replenishment as needed
  • In general: rates of utilization are not static

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

intended output of the force generation process6
Intended output of the Force Generation Process
  • An Effective, Integrated, Adaptive, Deployable, Sustainable task force, able to supportorganizational learning
  • Organizational Learning  What works and what doesn’t
          • Robustness of systems and processes
          • What can be improved
          • Results from earlier attempts
  • Requires feedback into the appropriate learning processes
  • Many ways to record lessons learned
  • How well is the system able to use them
  • Biggest pitfall is widely dispersion of sub processes
    •  basis level 2 processes must be ensured.

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

slide17

Force Raise, Train and

Sustain

Recommended Implementation

measures

Force Generation

Organizational

Learning

Refined lessons

with higher

confidence

Further Exploration, Testing and Assessment

Recommended Implementation measures

Identify

form and ……

appropriate dissemination

Put in place monitoring processes

to evaluate utility of

lessons

drawn

Observe,review each step in organizational learning, introduce changes to them, assess impact on learning effectiveness, select and implement

Conjectures about what thelesson is

Recommended Implementation measures

Organization

Level 2

Learning

changes in effectiveness

Extract & generalize.

What are the applicable lessons? What are domains of applicability? Caveats?

Organization

Level 3

Learning-

to-Learn

eg processes to stimulate ad hoc reporting of observations, lessons etc

Observations, Lessons Learned,Anecdotes

Force Employment

Deployed operations

Units

Level 2 Learning

individuals

Units

Level 1 Adaptive Action

individuals

Learning links between various stages

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

slide18

Detailed requirement for Force Generation

A number of nested simultaneous adaptive processes

  • Learn about the history and dynamics of the C&IN of the situation
  • Co-evolve the intervention Stratagem to influence the situation with the force mix
  • Build the Force to be Employed
    • Assemble the force elements
    • Decide on and implement command and team structures
    • Integrate and train
    • Develop understanding of the situation
    • Evolve operational concepts
    • Undertake mission rehearsals
  • Develop the networks and relationships

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

slide19

A typical timeline for successive rotations

Planning Conferences

Planning Conferences

Discussions

Discussions

Hand Over

Hand Over

Take Over

Take Over

Higher command Backbriefs

Higher command Backbriefs

Coalition Command Post eXercises

Coalition Command Post eXercises

Reconnaissance missions

Reconnaissance missions

Reconnaissance

Reconnaissance

In

In

-

-

theatre Training

theatre Training

missions

missions

Concentration of force

Concentration of force

Capability cross

Capability cross

-

-

briefs

briefs

Training

Training

Force

Force

Generation

Generation

Insertion

Insertion

Extraction

Extraction

Force Generation

Force Generation

Rotation 1

Rotation 1

EX and AAR

EX and AAR

  • Always several rotations to deal with simultaneously
  • Therefore: Force Generation systems are well placed to facilitate Learning and adaptation between them
  • Coherence is a major challenge in three dimensions: Horizontally, Vertically and Temporally. Coherence needs continous monitoring

Rotation 2

Rotation 2

Mission Rehearsal Exs

Mission Rehearsal Exs

Force Generation

Force Generation

Rotation 3

Rotation

Operation

Operation

Post

Post

-

-

deployment

deployment

Pre - deployment

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces

slide20

Conclusions

  • We have identified the adaptive properties needed to support organizational learning and the force employment
  • Discussed a methodological approach to shape and assess Force Generation grounded in adaptivity
  • Addressed the challenges to create appropriate forces for complex endeavors
  • Noted the vital importance of social, information and ICT networks of the parent force to facilitate selection of force elements, provide feedback and grow networks of the deployable forces
  • Pointed out many ways in which networks can support and extend the capabilities of the force being generated
  • Still many open questions  further research necessary

The adaptive use of networks to generate adaptive forces