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Computer Graphics

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  1. ComputerGraphics

  2. LET US ENTER INTO THE MAGICAL WORLD OF ANIMATION

  3. Contents • INTRODUCTION • APPLICATIONS • DESIGN OF ANIMATION SEQUENCES • GENERAL COMPUTER ANIMATION FUNCTIONS • RASTER ANIMATIONS • COMPUTER ANIMATION LANGUAGES • KEY FRAME SYSTEMS • MOTION SPECIFICATIONS

  4. Computer Animation What is Animation? Make objects change over time according to scripted actions What is Simulation? Predict how objects change over time according to physical laws

  5. Introduction • Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images (moving images) using computer graphics. • Animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation. • From Latin animātiō, "the act of bringing to life"; from animō ("to animate" or "give life to") and -ātiō ("the act of"). 2D ANIMATION 3D ANIMATION

  6. APPLICATIONS Video games cartoon Mobile phones

  7. Design Of Animation Sequences • Steps for designing animation sequences. • Storyboard Layout • Object definitions • Key frame specifications • Generation of in-between frames

  8. Storyboard Layout

  9. Object Definitions

  10. Key frame Specifications

  11. In-between frames

  12. GENERAL COMPUTER ANIMATION FUNCTIONS • Animation software provide basic functions to create animation and process the individual object. Manipulate data object database. Motion generation. FUNCTIONS Object rendering. Amorphium Art of illusion

  13. Raster Animations Real-time animations can be generated using raster operations.

  14. ORGANISATION OF A VIDEO COLOUR TABLE 41H 255 65 Monitor 24-bit 65 Pixel value 0 Red Green Blue

  15. Computer Animation Languages • GENERAL PURPOSE LANGUAGES: • C,C++,Pascal, or Lisp(control animation sequences).

  16. SPECIALIZED ANIMATION LANGUAGES • Key frame systems • Parameterized systems • Scripting systems

  17. Key frame Systems

  18. Motion Specifications • Various ways in which motions of objects ca be specified as: • Direct Motion Specification. • Goal-Directed Systems. • Kinematics and Dynamics.

  19. Direct Motion Specification

  20. Goal Directed System

  21. Kinematics and Dynamics • KINEMATICS: • Motion parameters such as position , velocity and acceleration are specified without reference to the forces. • INVERSE KINEMATICS: • Initial and final positions of objects at specified times and from that motion parameters . • DYNAMICS: • The forces that produce the velocities and accelerations are specified(physically based modeling). • It uses laws such as Newton’s laws of motion , Euler or Navier -stokes equations.

  22. Outline Principles of Animation Keyframe Animation Articulated Figures

  23. Principle of Traditional Animation • Squash and Stretch • Slow In and Out • Anticipation • Exaggeration • Follow Through and Overlapping Action • Timing • Staging • Straight Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose Action • Arcs • Secondary Action • Appeal

  24. Squash and Stretch Stretch Squash

  25. Slow In and Out

  26. Anticipation

  27. Computer Animation Animation Pipeline • 3D modeling • Motion specification • Motion simulation • Shading, lighting, & rendering • Postprocessing

  28. Outline Principles of Animation Keyframe Animation Articulated Figures

  29. Keyframe Animation Define Character Poses at Specific Time Steps Called “Keyframes”

  30. Keyframe Animation Interpolate Variables Describing Keyframes to Determine Poses for Character in between

  31. Inbetweening Linear Interpolation • Usually not enough continuity

  32. Inbetweening Spline Interpolation Maybe good enough

  33. Inbetweening Spline Interpolation • Maybe good enough • May not follow physical laws

  34. Inbetweening Spline Interpolation • Maybe good enough • May not follow physical laws

  35. Inbetweening Inverse Kinematics or Dynamics

  36. Outline Principles of Animation Keyframe Animation Articulated Figures

  37. Articulated Figures Character Poses Described by Set of Rigid Bodies Connected by “Joints” Base Arm Hand Scene Graph

  38. Articulated Figures Well-Suited for Humanoid Characters

  39. Articulated Figures Joints Provide Handles for Moving Articulated Figure

  40. Inbetweening Compute Joint Angles between Keyframes consider the length constancy Right Wrong

  41. Example: Walk Cycle Articulated Figure: Hip Upper Leg (Hip Rotate) Upper Leg Hip Rotate Knee Lower Leg (Knee Rotate) Hip Rotate + Knee Rotate Lower Leg Ankle Foot (Ankle Rotate) Foot

  42. Example: Walk Cycle Hip Joint Orientation:

  43. Example: Walk Cycle Knee Joint Orientation:

  44. Example: Walk Cycle Ankle Joint Orientation:

  45. Challenge of Animation Temporal Aliasing • Motion blur

  46. Temporal Ailasing Artifacts due to Limited Temporal Resolution • Strobing • Flickering

  47. Temporal Ailasing Artifacts due to Limited Temporal Resolution • Strobing • Flickering

  48. Temporal Ailasing Artifacts due to Limited Temporal Resolution • Strobing • Flickering

  49. Temporal Ailasing Artifacts due to Limited Temporal Resolution • Strobing • Flickering