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Object Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML

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  1. Object Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML

  2. What is USE CASE diagram? • A use case diagram establish the capability of the system as a whole. • Components of use case diagram: Actor Use case System boundary Relationship Actor relationship • Semantic of the components is followed.

  3. Manager Cashier Customer ACTOR: What is an actor? • An actor is some one or something that must interact with the system under development • UML notation for actor is stickman, shown below.

  4. ACTOR: More about an actor: • It is role a user plays with respect to system. • Actors are not part of the system they represent anyone or anything that must interact with the system. • Actors carry out use cases and a single actor may perform more than one use cases. • Actors are determined by observing the direct uses of the system,

  5. ACTOR: Contd… • Those are responsible for its use and maintain as well as other systems that interact with the developed system. • An actor may - input information to the system. - receive information from the system. - input to and out from the system.

  6. ACTOR: How do we find the actor? • Ask following questions to find the actors: • Who uses the system? • Who installs the system? • Who Starts up the system? • What other systems use this system? • Who gets the information from the system? • Who provides information to the system? • Actor is always external to the system. They are never part of the system to be developed.

  7. ACTOR: 4-Categories of an actor: • Principle : Who uses the main system functions. • Secondary : Who takes care of administration & maintenance. • External h/w : The h/w devices which are part of application domain and must be used. • Other system: The other system with which the system must interact.

  8. ACTOR: Note: • If newly identified actor is using a system in a same way like an existing actor, then new actor can be dropped. • If two actors use system in the same way they are same actors.

  9. USE CASE: What is USE case? • A use case is a pattern of behavior, the system exhibits • Each use case is a sequence of related transactions performed by an actor and the system in dialogue. • USE CASE is dialogue between an actor and the system. • Examples: Withdrawal of cash from ATM Open new account

  10. USE CASE: More about USE CASE: • It is a snapshot of one aspect of system. • They model a dialog between actor and system. • A use case typically represents a major piece of functionality that is complete from beginning to end. • Most of the use cases are generated in initial phase, but you find some more as you proceed. • A use case may be small or large. It captures a broad view of a primary functionality of the system in a manner that can be easily grasped by non technical user.

  11. USE CASE: Contd… • A use case must deliver something of value to an actor. • The use cases may be decomposed into other use cases. • Use cases also present a good vehicle for project planning.

  12. USE CASE: How do we find the use cases? • What functions will the actor want from the system? • Does the system store information? What actors will create, read, update. Or delete that information? • Does the system need to notify an actor about changes in its internal state?

  13. USE CASE: • Generic format for documenting the use case: - Pre condition: If any • Use case : Name of the case. • Actors : List of actors(external agents), indicating who initiates the use case. • Purpose : Intention of the use case. • Overview : Description. • Type : primary / secondary. • Post condition: If any • Typical Course of Events: ACTOR ACTION : Numbered actions of the actor. SYSTEM RESPONSE : Numbered description of system responses.

  14. USE CASE: USE CASE documentation example: • The following use case describes the process of opening a new account in the bank. Use case :Open new account Actors :Customer, Cashier, Manager Purpose :Like to have new saving account. Description :A customer arrives in the bank to open the new account. Customer requests for the new account form, fill the same and submits, along with the minimal deposit. At the end of complete successful process customer receives the passbook. Type :Primary use case.

  15. SYSTEM BOUNDARY: What is System Boundary? • It is shown as a rectangle. • It helps to identify what is external verses internal, and what the responsibilities of the system are. • The external environment is represented only by actors.

  16. RELATIONSHIP: What is Relationship? • Relationship between use case and actor. Communicates • Relationship between two use cases Extends Uses • Notation used to show the relationships: << >>

  17. RELATIONSHIP: • Relationship between use case and actor is often referred as “communicates” . • Relationship between two use cases is refereed as either uses or extends. USES: • - Multiple use cases share a piece of same functionality. • - This functionality is placed in a separate use case rather than documenting in every use case that needs it.

  18. RELATIONSHIP: Contd... • A uses relationship shows behavior that is common to one or more use cases. EXTENDS: • It is used to show optional behavior, which is required only under certain condition.

  19. USE CASE diagram: Use case diagram for the shown functionality. Balance status report extends Withdraw cash Clerk Customer uses Validation ATM Manager