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Section 7. Analysis of Some Rules of Professional Conduct. Introduction. Objectivity Advertising and Tendering Competence Responsibility to the Public and Clients Responsibilities to Colleagues Independence and the CBCA The CA as a Tax Adviser.

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Section 7


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section 7

Section 7

Analysis of Some Rules of Professional Conduct

introduction
Introduction
  • Objectivity
  • Advertising and Tendering
  • Competence
  • Responsibility to the Public and Clients
  • Responsibilities to Colleagues
  • Independence and the CBCA
  • The CA as a Tax Adviser
  • Will look at several areas that have a major impact on public accounting and reporting.
objectivity rule 204
Objectivity (Rule 204)
  • Also called?
  • Two distinct aspects:
    • Objectivity in fact
    • Objectivity in appearance
slide4

Objectivity in Fact

  • Public accountant’s ability to maintain
  • Not subject to objective measurement
  • How do you judge objectivity in fact?
slide5

Objectivity in Appearance

  • Public accountant’s ability to be
  • Reasonable observer
  • Objectivity in appearance has become very important in judging public accountants objectivity
slide6

Canada Business Corporations Act

  • No financial or management interest
  • This implies?
slide7

Investment or Financial Interest in Audit Clients

  • Shares, bonds, mortgages, notes
  • What influence can the auditor have in this situation?
  • Immediate family?
  • Audit staff?
slide8

Close relatives?

  • How about an audit partner?
slide9

Nonaudit Functions and Services

  • Some incompatible functions for the auditor
  • Immediate families and close relatives?
  • An audit partner?
slide10

Business Transactions and Relationships

  • An unreasonable expectation
  • Should avoid:
    • Special terms
    • Commissions for sales to clients
slide11

Economic Dependence

  • Financial well-being is dependent on
  • What could result from such a situation?
slide12

Other Conflict-of-Interest Situations

  • Three special situations:
    • Activities of retired partners
    • Client gifts
    • Litigation
slide13

Management Advisory Services

  • What is the key question?
  • Decision-making role
  • Pure advisory services
slide14

Objectivity – A Matter of Degree

  • Not absolute
  • Auditors work closely with clients
  • Recent developments
    • Audit Committee
    • Legislation
slide15

Shopping for accounting principles

  • Thus auditors who are consulted on a question of accounting or auditing
advertising and tendering rule 217
Advertising and Tendering(Rule 217)
  • All provincial institutes allow advertising
  • As long as the advertising is
  • Advertising should not be
slide17

Acceptable advertising includes

  • Unethical advertising
  • Tendering
competence rule 203
Competence(Rule 203)
  • Maintaining professional competence
  • Practice inspection
  • A report is issued
slide19

Serious failure

  • Areas to be documented:
    • File and statement preparation
    • Objectivity
    • Maintenance of professional skills
    • Staff recruiting, advancement, supervision
    • Outside consultation
    • Office administration
responsibility to public and clients
Responsibility to Public and Clients

Auditing Standards and Accounting Principles(206)

  • Must comply with GAAS
  • Also with GAAP
  • The strengthening authority
slide21

Contingent Fees (215)

  • Not allowed
  • What is a contingent fee?
  • How could this affect the auditor?
slide22

Confidentiality (210)

  • Nature of CAs work
  • Confidentiality is never a justification for
  • Not privileged under common law
slide23

Illegal Acts by Clients (213)

  • A CA “ shall not knowingly lend himself or herself or his or her name or services to nay unlawful activity”.
  • Honourable behaviour
  • If CA has knowledge?
responsibility to colleagues rule 300 s
Responsibility to Colleagues (Rule 300’s)
  • Ensures goodwill and mutual cooperation
  • Solicitation and encroachment
  • Rules discourage
canada business corporation act
Canada Business Corporation Act
  • Act uses the term “independence”
  • Section 161
  • Considered a question of fact
slide26

What Constitutes Nonindependence?

  • Not independent if:
    • A business partner, director, an officer or employee
    • Beneficially owns or controls directly or indirectly, a material interest
    • Has been a receiver, receiver-manager, liquidator or trustee in bankruptcy
the ca as tax adviser
The CA as Tax Adviser
  • Rules of Professional Conduct
  • CA may properly resolve questionable issues in favour of the client as long as
  • Objectivity?
slide28

Must adhere to same standards of truth and personal integrity

  • Information in tax returns must not be false or misleading
  • If information appears unreasonable or contradictory
slide29

Problem 3-27:

Marie Janes encounters the following situations in doing the audit of a large auto dealership. Janes is not a partner.

  • The sales manager tells her that there is a sale on new cars (at a substantial discount) that is limited to long-established customers of the dealership. Because her firm has been doing the audit for several years, the sales manager has decided that Janes should also be eligible for the discount.
  • The auto delaership has an executive lunchroom that is available free to employees above a certain level. The controler informs Janes that she can also eat there any time.
  • Janes is invited to and attends the company’s annual Christmas party. When presents are handed out, she is surprised to find herself included. The present has a value of approximately $200.
  • Required:
  • Assuming Janes accepts the offer or gift in each situation, has she violated the rules of conduct?
  • Discuss what Janes should do in each situation.
slide30

Problem 3-28:

The following are situations that may violate the general rules of conduct of professional accountants discussed in the chapter. Assume in each case that the public accountant is a partner.

  • Simone Able, public accountant, owns a substantial limited partnership interest in an apartment building. Juan Rodriquez is a 100 percent owner in Rodriquez Marine Ltd. Rodriquez also owns a substantial interest in the same limited partnership as Able. Able does the audit of Rodriquez marine Ltd.
  • Horst Baker, public accountant, approaches a new audit client and tells the president that he has an idea that could result in a substantial tax refund in the prior year’s tax return by application of a technical provision in a tax law that the client had overlooked. Baker adds that the fee will be 50 percent of the tax refund after it has been resolved by Revenue Canada. The client agrees to the proposal.
  • Chantal Contel, public accountant, advertises in the local paper that her firm does the audit of 14 of the 36 largest drugstores in the city. The advertisement also states that the average audit fee, as a percentage of total assets for the drugstores she audits, is lower than any other public accounting firm’s in the city.
slide31

Olaf Gustafson, public accountant, sets up small loan company specializing in loans to business executives and small companies. Gustafson does not spend much time in the business because he works full time with his public accounting practice. No employees of Gustafson’s public accounting firm are involved in the small loan company.

  • Louise Elbert, public accountant, owns a material amount of stock in a mutual fund investment company, which in turn owns stock in Elbert’s largest audit client. Reading the investment company’s most recent financial report, Elbert is surprised to learn that the company’s ownership in her client has increased dramatically.
  • Kerry Finigan, public accountant, does the audit, tax return, bookkeeping, and management services work for Gilligan Construction Company Limited. Before she makes any business decision, Mildred Gilligan follows the practice of calling Finigan to determine the effect on her company’s taxes and the financial statements. Finigan attends continuing education courses in the construction industry to make sure she is technically competent and knowledgeable about the industry. Finigan normally attends board of directors’ meetings and accompanies Gilligan when she is seeking loans. Mildred Gilligan often jokingly introduces Finigan with the statement, “I have
slide32

my three business partners – my banker, the government, and my public accountant, but Finny’s the only one that is on my side.”

Required:

Discuss whether the facts in any of the situations indicate violations of the rules of conduct for professional accountants. If so, identify the nature of the violation(s).