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The Market Revolution. The Rise of Interchangeable Parts. Remember the story of Chauncey Jerome Started as an apprentice for a master clockmaker Started on company by age of 24 and realized he could mass produce clocks by using interchangeable parts. Prices dropped from $20 to $2.

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The rise of interchangeable parts
The Rise of Interchangeable Parts

Remember the story of Chauncey Jerome

Started as an apprentice for a master clockmaker

Started on company by age of 24 and realized he could mass produce clocks by using interchangeable parts.

Prices dropped from $20 to $2

I a new economy

A. Situation at outset of nineteenth century

1. Market revolution already underway

2. Widespread isolation from markets

a. Reasons for

b. Young Lincoln’s illustration

I. A new economy

Transportation and communication revolutions

1. Forms

a. Toll roads; “turnpikes”

b. Steamboats

c. Canals

i. Erie Canal

ii. Competing canal projects

d. Railroads

e. Telegraph

Transportation and communication revolutions


The National Road – Cumberland, Md. To Vandalia, Ill. 1818 - 1839


The Steamboat – 1807 Robert Fulton – The Clermont traveled up the Hudson River – Why important?

Later will help improve transportation on the Mississippi R.

Canals- To carry corn and wheat and manufactured goods – Canal system

The erie canal
The Erie Canal

1st major engineering feat in America.

Supported by the New York City Merchants, Gov. DeWitt Clinton, and the tax payers.

Moved millions of cubic yards of dirt, quarry rocks and build locks to raise and lower boats

The erie canal1
The Erie Canal

Brought prosperity to central and western New York

Towns and industries developed along the route

Led to a canal building boom

The railroad
The Railroad

In 1830 the first American-built locomotives were put into regular operation on the Baltimore and Ohio, Charleston and Hamburg, and Mohawk and Hudson railroads

Vested interests, including turnpike and bridge companies, stagecoaches, ferries, and canals, sought laws to prohibit trains from carrying freight

The railroad1
The Railroad

After 1830 that railroads were destined to become the nation's chief means of moving freight.

During the 1830s, construction companies laid down 3,328 miles of track, roughly equal to all the miles of canals in the country.

With an average speed of 10 miles an hour, railroads were faster than other vehicles and could travel in any season.

Results of the transportation revolution
Results of the Transportation revolution

The transportation revolution sharply reduced the cost of shipping goods to market and stimulated agriculture and industry.

New roads, canals, and railroads speeded the pace of commerce and strengthened ties between the East and West.

Communication revolution
Communication Revolution

During the 1790s, it took 3 weeks for a letter to travel from New York to Cincinnati or Detroit and 4 weeks to arrive in New Orleans.

In 1799 it took 1 week for news of George Washington's death to reach New York City from Virginia.

A decade and a half later, it still took 49 days for word of the peace treaty ending the War of 1812 to reach New York from London.

The telegraph
The Telegraph

As early as the 1720s, it was known that electricity could be conducted along a wire to convey messages

Iit was not until 1844 that an American artist and inventor named Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated the practicality of the telegraph and devised a workable code for sending messages

Transportation and communication revolutions1


a. Opening of interior to settlement, commerce

b. Lower transportation costs

c. Spread of instant, long-distance communication

d. Linkage of western farmers to distant markets

Transportation and communication revolutions

Rise of the cotton kingdom

1. Pace and magnitude

2. Contributing factors

a. Industrial demand for cotton

b. Invention of cotton gin

c. Opening of Deep South to white settlement

3. Revitalization and spread of plantation slavery

a. Growth of domestic slave trade

b. Consequences for slaves

c. Consequences for South’s social and economic


Rise of the Cotton Kingdom

Market society

Commercialization of northwest farming

1. Eastern markets

2. Transportation networks

3. Availability of credit

4. Improved farm machinery

Market society

Market society1

Growth of cities

1. Place on western frontier

2. Pace of growth

From craft production to mass production

1. Decline of artisan tradition

a. Larger workshops

b. Subdivision of tasks

c. Increased supervision

Market society

Growth cities and towns
Growth Cities and Towns

Chicago – fastest growing boom town




St. Louis – 2nd fastest growing boom town

Industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

Individuals efforts to make industrial changes

Leads to a new economic era, but also led to class-divided society

Division of labor in the factory
Division of Labor in the Factory

Take semi-skilled workers and teach the employee a specific task.

No longer a master cobbler in shoe factories, but mass production of product.

Leads to lower prices.

Samuel slater father of the industrial revolution
Samuel Slater Father of the Industrial Revolution

British government forbade anyone migrating to the America’s who were textile mechanics .

Slater comes to the U.S. in 1789 having memorized Richard Arkwright's spinning frame plans.

Worked with Moses Brown in Providence Rhode Island.

Samuel slater father of the industrial revolution1
Samuel Slater Father of the Industrial Revolution

The market revolution

Before machinery, thread was spun by unmarried women, orphan girls, and widows with no prospects for remarriage. Thus the term for unmarried women became “spinster”

The lowell factory girls
The Lowell Factory Girls

Francis Cabot Lowell went to England and stole the best of the ideas of the British Factory System

Opens factories in Waltham, Massachusetts

Built the largest and fastest mill in the world.

To lower prices, recruit farm girls and women to work in the mill

The lowell factory girls1
The Lowell Factory Girls

Provide boarding houses and cultural activities

Strict curfews and prohibition of alcohol

Work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week. Most sent money home to help the family

Created a competitive textile industry

Lowell factory girl
Lowell Factory Girl

Oh! isn't it a pity, such a pretty girl as IShould be sent to the factory to pine away and die?Oh! I cannot be a slave, I will not be a slave,For I'm so fond of liberty,That I cannot be a slave.

Lowell factory girl1
Lowell Factory Girl

We must leave our looms. We are daughters of free men and are being forced to work under conditions that approach slavery. Do we need this money so badly that we will submit to these inhumane working conditions while this aristocracy of mill owners lives off the profits of our sweat? Are we not entitled to reasonable breaks in our toil to eat our meals as decent people do - not racing to our boardinghouses and bolting our food like piglets at the trough? And is it not reasonable to limit the workday to ten hours so we have time in the evenings to improve our minds as we were promised? WE must prevent our sex from being made into living machines to do the bidding of incorporated aristocrats and reduced to a sum for their services hardly sufficient to keep soul and body together. The mill managers have been deaf to our petitions and our rallies. They will only hear us when the factories are stilled by workers leaving their looms to secure their dignity and their rights

Mass production

Initial features

i. Large concentrations of workers

ii. Centralized supervision

iii. Water power

iv. Power-driven machinery

v. “Outwork”

Mass Production

The factory system

Evolving features

i. Steam power

ii. Widening range of locations

iii. Widening range of goods

iv. Interchangeable parts

v. Standardized products

The Factory System

The factory system1

Regional variations

i. Concentration of early industry in New England

ii. Small-scale manufacturing elsewhere in North

iii. Minimal industrialization in South

The Factory System

The industrial worker

1. Sharpening of line between work time and leisure time

2. From labor’s “price” to labor’s “wage”

3. Early aversion of working men to wage labor

4. Women at Lowell

The Industrial Worker

Changes in social structure
Changes in Social Structure

New Urban Poor

By 1840 half of the native born freemen were working for others

They had money for food and rent and not for much

Lived in slums amid great squalor and vermin

Mass consumption of alcohol added to the squalor

Growth of immigration to america

1. Flow of (Push Pull Factors)

2. Factors behind

a. Access to jobs and land in North

b. Displacement of peasants and craft workers in Europe

c. Advances in long-distance travel

d. Appeal of American freedoms

e. Irish potato famine

Growth of Immigration to America

Growth of immigration to america1

Experience of

a. Irish

b. Germans

c. Others

Rise of Nativism

a. Chapter in ongoing American anxiety over immigration

b. Perception of Irish as subversive to ideals of democratic republic

c. Anti-immigrant initiatives

i. Riots

ii. Electoral campaigns

Growth of Immigration to America


Large rise of Catholicism

Leads to Nativism

Protestantism worried about this

Samuel Morse wrote books about the conspiracy of the Catholic Church

Boston – Burning of convents

Philadelphia – Riots when the Catholic Bishop persuaded the schools to add a Catholic Bible along with the Protestant Bible

Blamed Immigrants for job losses among the poor Protestants

Founding of the Know Nothing Party

Legal foundation for business growth

1. Corporate charters – investors and directors are not liable for corporate debt

Limited liability

2. Charters as contracts

3. Rejection of state-sponsored monopoly

4. Support for state-sponsored competition

6. Exculpation of companies for property damage

7. Affirmation of employer power at workplace

8. Criminalization of strikes

Legal foundation for business growth

Ideals of market revolution

Competition and material advancement as measures of liable for corporate debt


1. The “self-made man”

Beneficiaries of market revolution

1. Wealthy bankers, merchants, industrialists, planters

2. Middle-class employees

3. Successful farmers

4. Successful craftsmen

5. Professionals

Ideals of Market Revolution

Free blacks and the market revolution

Discriminatory barriers to opportunity liable for corporate debt

a. Forms – could practice as an artisan.

b. Impetus behind – thought they would work for less

c. Impact on black status downward spiral economically.

d. The West?

Free blacks and the market revolution

Women and the market revolution

1. Decline of home as realm of economic production liable for corporate debt

2. The “cult of domesticity”

a. Separate spheres

b. Distinctive ideals of femininity and masculinity

3. Wage-earning women

a. Limited rights and options

b. Meager terms of labor

4. Middle-class women

a. Domestic respectability

b. Freedom from household labor

Women and the Market Revolution

Concern over effects of market revolution

1. Acquisitiveness as threat to public good liable for corporate debt

2. Cycle of boom and bust

3. Irregular employment

4. Widening inequalities of living standards

5. Erosion of craft skills

6. Specter of wage dependency; “wage slavery”

Concern over Effects of Market Revolution