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Enhancing the Leisure Experience: Motivations, Meanings and Constraints. Chapter 7 HPR 452. Motivation: what is it?. Behavior is preceded by a need or motive Engagement in the behavior may result in fulfillment or the need that originally motivated involvement

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motivation what is it
Motivation: what is it?
  • Behavior is preceded by a need or motive
  • Engagement in the behavior may result in fulfillment or the need that originally motivated involvement
  • Feedback on the success, or failure, of the activity in meeting needs results in continuation or cessation of the activity

Mannell and Kleiber (1977)

  • Motives are a crucial part of the leisure experience

Lifelong leisure activity involvement such as Victor Logan, the violin craftsman…

  • Provides meaning and is a part of his life
  • This is indicative of leisure for many older individuals
  • Why do people participate in leisure? Because it is enjoyable – but is this enough?
leisure motivation
Leisure Motivation
  • Leisure is very personal – different meaning for different individuals
  • i.e. tennis – status, exercise, be with spouse, socialize w/ friends, do something outside, emulate a role model
  • Also, an activity may have different meanings on different days for the same individual
  • It is the meaning to the individual which is crucial

The meaning of the activity which determines if it is expressive leisure, social leisure or activity required by social roles

  • Iso-Ahola (1989) views motives as internal factors of driving behaviors – if NH residents participate for social interaction, why plan programs that do not include this factor?
  • Leisure providers must cultivate motivation
reasons for participating in leisure
Reasons for Participating in Leisure
  • Havinghurst (1961) – pg 119
    • Just for the pleasure
    • Welcome change from work
    • New experiences
    • Chances to be creative
    • Chance to achieve something
    • Contact with friends
    • Make time pass
    • Service to others
  • Determined by personality – not age, gender or social class
leisure as a benefit
Leisure as a benefit
  • Nimrod (2007) – Retirees in Israel
      • Essentiality – Role expectations or developing competence
      • Growth – Personal development
      • Challenge – active engagement and good performance
      • Companionship – strengthening relationships
      • Work-Like – contradictory answers – either doing something different or similar to work
  • Havinghurst and Nimrod similarities – achievement, social interaction, link to work, growth opportunity

Leisure is defined by the meaning attached and not by the activity itself

  • So we need to understand “why” it is done
  • Gordon and Gaitz – “objectives of leisure”
      • Relaxation
      • Diversion
      • Self-development
      • Creativity
      • Sensual Transcendence pg 120

Kelly and Godbey (1992) – global concept

    • Psychological
    • Educational
    • Social
    • Relaxation
    • Physiological
    • Aesthetic

Lawton (1993) – Leisure in later life

      • Solitude
      • Intrinsic satisfaction
      • Diversion
      • Relaxation
      • Intellectual challenge
      • Health
      • Personal competence
      • Expression and personal development
      • Creativity
      • Social interaction
      • Opportunity for service
      • Social status

Intrinsic motivation – activities that people do naturally and spontaneously when they feel free to follow their inner interests

  • Leisure – not only pleasurable but good for you
  • Competence – explore, experiment, persist, and succeed
  • Individuals have a need to feel effective and interact successfully with their environment

Older individuals lose roles of competence

  • Leisure activities can replace these roles
  • Leisure opportunities should provide opportunities for challenge and progression from basic to advanced
  • Leisure service professionals should provide a wide array of opportunities

Autonomy vs Heteronomy

  • Self-organization vs. regulated by external forces
  • Autonomy is different from independence
  • You can be dependent for some needs but autonomous – intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-regulation
  • Provide choice and control for older adults in leisure (types and schedules)
  • Feeling connected, cared for, and sense of belonging with significant others
  • Intrinsic motivation will be more likely to flourish when including relatedness
  • Older individuals reduce social ties and intensify the ones left
  • Flow – Individual skills are harmonious with the demands of the activity
  • Leisure service providers must give opportunity for individuals to identify outlets for Flow
seeking and escaping
Seeking and Escaping
  • Seeking personal/interpersonal intrinsic rewards through leisure experiences
  • Escaping personal/interpersonal environments through leisure experiences
  • Leisure motivation is a matter of both
  • Retirement > volunteer work > escape yet rewarding > must be a balance – pg 125
optimum arousal as leisure motivator
Optimum Arousal as Leisure Motivator
  • Ellis (1973) – Individuals seek to be in a state of uncertainty and stimulation – Achieved through novelty in activity
  • Arousal beneath or above an individual’s optimum level is unpleasant
  • Leisure service providers must offer the appropriate balance with older individuals – stimulating, novel, challenge yet familiar and predictable

People are motivated by the search for personal meaning in life

  • Programs designed to assist in the search help individuals find purpose in living
  • Meaning in life – highest to lowest
      • Values that relate to the ultimate purpose of life
      • Devotion of time and energy to reach potential
      • Altruism – service to others
  • Breadth and Depth are both important
leisure constraints
Leisure Constraints
  • Poor health
  • Lack of opportunity
  • Decline in visual acuity
  • Lack of transportation
  • Reduced income
  • Fear of falling
  • Physical/Cognitive limitations in general
  • Money, time, facilities, companions, health