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Toulmin Examples. Claims are debatable or controversial statements/assertions you hope to prove. Evidence and Reasons. Claim. A claim answers the question “what should we do?”

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Toulmin Examples

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Claims are debatable or controversial statements/assertions you hope to prove

Evidence and Reasons



A claim answers the question “what should we do?”

  • 􀂃A surprisingly large number of arguments don’t have claims. “The President is dumb” “Our taxes are too high” or, “The war is immoral” are all examples of arguments without claims.

Warrants are the unstated (or stated) assumptions or agreements you can rely on your audience making in order to believe your reasons.

  • Warrants support reasons
  • They can be oversimplified to ___________ is good OR ___________ is bad.
  • Vending machines should be removed from campus because they promote unhealthy eating habits and cause classroom distractions.

Warrant #1= Unhealthy eating habits hurt students

Warrant #2= Classroom distractions are undesirable

  • ADOT needs to widen the I-17 now because traffic congestion has worsened and fatal accidents have increased.

Warrant #1= ?

Traffic congestion is bad

Warrant #2= ?

People dying is worse

  • Everyone should be able to express their religious beliefs because it is their right to do so.

Warrant #1= ?

if it is a right, we should be able to do it (also-religious expression is a right)

  • The NBA should accept players out of high school because players like Lebron James and Kobe Bryant are beneficial to teams.

Warrant #1= ?

Talented players who benefit teams are important enough to society that we can overlook the age/education factor


Warrants tell you what arguments you have to make and at what level you have to make them

The mushroom is poisonous

So do not eat it!

Since eating poisonous things is dangerous

more examples
More examples

Smoking causes serious diseases in smokers and endangers non-smokers as well.

So the federal government should ban smoking.

Since the Constitution was established to “promote the general welfare,” and citizens are thus entitled to protection from the harmful acts of others.

more examples11
More examples

I have been drinking since age 14 without a problems.

So the legal age for drinking should be lowered.

What works for me should work for everyone else.

  • Additional support or proof you might need to prove your reasons are good if your warrant is shaky or arguable
  • Example: Violent music lyrics cause violent behavior because they cause people to think in violent ways.
  • Warrant= ?
  • Does the warrant need backing?
  • Could the claim be qualified?
  • How?
more examples13
More examples

Fill in the Reasons and Identify the Backing

NASA should launch a human expedition to Mars because Americans need a unifying national goal.

What unifies the nation should be a national priority.

In a country as diverse as the US, common purposes and values help make a nation stronger. (Ethical appeal)

On a personal level, Americans want to be a part of something bigger than themselves. (Emotional appeal)

In the past, enterprises such as westward expansion, WWII, and the Apollo moon program enabled many (though not at all) Americans to work toward common goals. (Logical appeal as evidence)

fill in the blanks
Fill in the blanks

If the federal gov’t can spend huge amounts of $ on the military, it can afford to spend moderate amounts on arts programs.

A country that can fund expensive programs can also afford less expensive programs.

(Ethical appeal)

(Emotional appeal)

(Logical appeal as evidence)

fill in the blanks15
Fill in the blanks

Vanessa went to NAU and makes $50,000/year, while Jonny went to work right after graduating from SDOHS and makes $20,000/year.

In most cases, people who don’t go to college earn less money than those who do.

(Ethical appeal)

(Emotional appeal)

(Logical appeal as evidence)

using qualifiers
Using Qualifiers


It is possible


It seems


It may be

More or less

In some cases




One may argue




Under these conditions

For the most part

If it were so

conditions of rebuttal
Conditions of Rebuttal
  • Potential objections to the argument/claim.

Claim- The federal gov’t should support the arts because it also supports the military.

Warrant- If the federal gov’t can support the military, it can also support other programs.

Rebuttal-The federal gov’t is constitutionally obligated to fund the military. Support for public TV or a local dance troop is hardly in the same league.

  • Acknowledging a part of the opposing argument that can not be refuted
  • Rebuttal follows the concession but uses it to build upon or further one’s OWN claim.
  • Example: It is true that SB1070 is a deterrent to illegal immigrants who might cross through Arizona. However, the additional manpower needed to enforce the law will allow other crimes to go unpursued.
outline of the toulmin model
Outline of the Toulmin Model
  • Claim- The federal gov’t should ban smoking.
  • Qualifier- The ban would be limited to public spaces.
  • Reason- Smoking causes disease in smokers. Non-smokers are endangered by second hand smoke.
  • Warrant- The Constitution promises “to promote the general welfare.” And citizens are entitled to protection from harmful actions by others.
  • Backing- The US is based on a political system that is suppose to serve the basic needs of its people, including their health.
  • Evidence- 102,002 deaths attributed to second hand smoke in 2010. Lawsuit won against Camel Cigarettes, citing the need for smoking related health costs.

Authority- ?

Surgeon general. Doctor, scientist

  • Concession- ?

The ban applies to public places; smokers can smoke in private or designated areas.

  • Rebuttal- ?

Smokers have rights too. Smoking laws should be left to the individual states.

now read an example passage
Now read an example passage
  • Read “Testing Speech Codes”
  • Annotate/identify the Toulmin terms in the passage