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Clicker Questions. Sue Frantz Highline Community College August 2013. RESEARCH METHODS. Research Methods. Which graph represents a negative correlation?. B. C. A. How well do you understand correlations? I get it! I’m almost there. Sort of. Not really.

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clicker questions

Clicker Questions

Sue Frantz

Highline Community College

August 2013

slide3

Research Methods

  • Which graph represents a negative correlation?

B

C

A

slide4

How well do you understand correlations?

  • I get it!
  • I’m almost there.
  • Sort of.
  • Not really.
  • I have no clue what you’re talking about.
slide5

People who smile more intensely as children (as measured by number of crow’s feet around the eyes in photos) are more likely to remain married through middle age.

  • Positive correlation B. Negative correlation C. Zero correlation
slide6

People who sleep less than 5 hours a night on average are more likely to have calcium deposits in their arteries.

  • Positive correlation B. Negative correlation C. Zero correlation
slide7

People who are taller are more likely to have higher incomes. (This is especially true in sales.)

  • Positive correlation B. Negative correlation C. Zero correlation
slide8

People who multitask the most are the worst at it (memory, ability to switch from one task to another and being able to focus on a task).

  • Positive correlation B. Negative correlation C. Zero correlation
slide9

Which group do you think will remember the most 1 week later?

  • Group 1
  • Group 2
  • Group 3

Roediger, H.L., III, & Karpicke, J.D. (2006). The power of testing memory: Basic research and implications for educational practice. Psychological Science, 1, 181-210.

slide10

Students are randomly assigned to take a test in either a hot room or a comfortable room. We’ll then compare test scores to see if hot rooms negatively affect test-taking.

  • What is the independent variable?
  • Students
  • Room temperature
  • Test scores
  • Tests
  • All of these
slide11

Students are randomly assigned to take a test in either a hot room or a comfortable room. We’ll then compare test scores to see if hot rooms negatively affect test-taking.

  • What is the dependent variable?
  • Students
  • Hot room
  • Comfortable room
  • Test scores
  • All of these
slide12

Students are randomly assigned to take a test in either a hot room or a comfortable room. We’ll then compare test scores to see if hot rooms negatively affect test-taking.

What is the experimental condition?

A. Students

B. Hot room

C. Comfortable room

D. Test scores

slide14

Neurotransmitters lock into receptor sites on the:

A. axon

B. dendrites

C. cell body

D. terminal branches

E. both B and C

slide15

When neurotransmitters lock into those receptor sites, what happens next?

A. Na+ flow in next to those receptor sites

B. Na+ flow into the first section of the axon

C. Neurotransmitters flow into the first section of the axon

D. Neurotransmitters flow out of the terminal branches

E. Na+ flow out of the terminal branches

slide16

After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her:

A. amygdala.

B. reticular formation.

C. cerebellum.

D. corpus callosum.

slide17

A new superhero emerges on the scene. This superhero is able to stay awake and vigilant for extended amounts of time. He helps the intelligence community by being able to stay in surveillance for extended amounts of time without losing concentration and can always be paying attention to what is happening. A study of this superhero’s brain might show that the ____________ is more advanced and developed than a non-superhero’s.

A. hippocampus

B. amygdala

C. reticular formation

D. medulla

slide18
If Dr. Barnes wanted to cause a cat to take on an attack posture, which of the cat’s brain structures should he electrically stimulate?

A. amygdala

B. hypothalamus

C. hippocampus

D. cerebellum

which brain area is most responsible
Which brain area is most responsible?
  • Thalamus
  • Medulla
  • Reticular formation
  • Cerebellum
which of the following activities is not primarily a function of the left hemisphere
Which of the following activities is NOT primarily a function of the left hemisphere?

A. listening to a piano concerto

B. reading your psychology book

C. reading junk mail

D. listening to a poetry reading

slide22

The ring of muscle tissue that controls the pupil's size is called the: a. cornea.b. fovea.c. lens.d. iris.

slide23

Damage to the fovea would have the greatest effect on: a. night vision.b. peripheral vision.c. visual acuity.d. sensory adaptation.

slide24

Why is the image upside down and backwards when it reaches the retina? a. The pupil refracts (bends) the light waves.b. The lens refracts the light waves.c. The cornea refracts the light waves.d. I still have no idea.

slide25

Many elderly people lose their hearing for high-pitched sounds due to tissue degeneration near the beginning of the basilar membrane. This is best explained by the ________ theory. a. Young-Helmholtzb. frequencyc. opponent-processd. place

slide26

You are in an unfamiliar setting and your eyes are closed. Which of the following sounds would be hardest for you to locate correctly? a. a bell ringing 6 feet directly in front of youb. a pen hitting the top of a table beside youc. a crying child standing 5 feet off to your rightd. music from a loudspeaker 15 feet to your left

slide27

Which is an example of conduction deafness?

  • Torn auditory nerve
  • Punctured ear drum
  • Damaged hair cells in the cochlea
  • All of these
  • None of these
slide29

While George was having a cavity filled by his dentist, the drill hit a nerve that had not been dulled by anesthetic, a couple of times. Each time he cringed in pain. George now gets anxious each time he sees the dentist.

The drill hitting a nerve

  • Unconditioned stimulus
  • Unconditioned response
  • Conditioned stimulus
  • Conditioned response
slide30

Every time a psychology instructor enters the classroom, she goes straight to the board to write an outline on it. Unfortunately, she has long finger nails and each time she writes the outline, her nails screech on the board, making students cringe. After a few weeks of this, students cringe at the sight of the teacher entering the classroom.

Sight of the teacher

  • Unconditioned stimulus
  • Unconditioned response
  • Conditioned stimulus
  • Conditioned response
slide31

LaToya was viciously bitten by a chihuahua. Now when she sees chihuahuas, she’s frightened.

Being frightened by chihuahuas now

  • Unconditioned stimulus
  • Unconditioned response
  • Conditioned stimulus
  • Conditioned response
slide32

Positive reinforcement

  • Negative reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative punishment
slide33

Positive reinforcement

  • Negative reinforcement
  • Positive punishment
  • Negative punishment

http://cheezburger.com/6585062144

slide34

If Daddy stops, the child’s behavior has been:

  • Positively reinforced
  • Negatively reinforced
  • Positively punished
  • Negatively punished
slide35

Positive Reinforcement

  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Positive Punishment
  • Negative Punishment
  • When Olivia makes rude noises at the dinner table, she gets her mouth washed out with soap. She doesn’t make rude noises that often anymore.
  • Little Joey gets yelled at when he acts up in class. Now he’s acting up even more.
  • Because Tameka earned an A in each of her classes, she doesn’t have to do her usual chore of vacuuming this month. She’s studying even more now.
  • Ray came home past his curfew, so he was not allowed to drive for the following week. He hasn’t missed a curfew since.
slide36

Positive Reinforcement

  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Positive Punishment
  • Negative Punishment
  • Maria put in extra hours at work helping her boss finish a major project. She received a big bonus for her contributions. She’s now looking for other ways to contribute at work.
  • When Thuy and Gurpreet were running around the living room, they crashed into the XBOX, breaking it. They now carefully walk through the living room.
  • Chandler’s girlfriend, Monica, keeps bugging him to take her dancing. He finally agrees, and she quits bugging him. The next time she starts bugging him, he quickly agrees to do whatever it is. (Chandler’s behavior is changing.)
  • Monica’s boyfriend, Chandler, gives in when she starts bugging him about something. Now whenever she wants something, she just starts bugging him. (Monica’s behavior is changing.)
slide37

Name that schedule of reinforcement.

  • Fixed ratio
  • Variable ratio
  • Fixed interval
  • Variable interval

Earn It Stars iPhone/iPod Touch app

slide38

Rover is being reinforced on what schedule?

  • Fixed ratio
  • Variable ratio
  • Fixed interval
  • Variable interval

http://www.gocomics.com/redandrover/2013/04/29

slide39

Fixed Ratio

  • Variable Ratio
  • Fixed Interval
  • Variable Interval
  • Buying scratch-off lottery tickets when you sometimes win.
  • A hotel maid takes a 15-minute break after cleaning 10 rooms.
  • Checking your cell phone to see if you have a new text message when your cell phone is on silent.
  • Checking the front porch for a newspaper when the deliverer is extremely unpredictable.
  • Checking the oven to see if chocolate chip cookies are done, when baking time is known.
slide40

Fixed Ratio

  • Variable Ratio
  • Fixed Interval
  • Variable Interval
  • A blueberry picker receives $1 after filling three pint boxes.
  • A charitable organization makes an average of 10 phone calls for every donation it receives.
  • Repeatedly calling a garage mechanic to see if your car is fixed yet. (Assume that the calls have no impact on your mechanic’s behavior.)
  • A student’s final grade improves one level for every three book reviews submitted.
  • A professional baseball player gets a hit approximately every third time at bat
slide42

Population of King County: Approximately 1.8 million

How many firearms deaths in 2010?

0 – 99

100 – 199

200 – 299

300 – 399

> 400

How many firearms deaths were there in King County in:

2009 _______

146*

2010 ______

135**

2011 _______

154

Homicides

______ %

29

______ %

29

______ %

23

Suicides

______ %

68

______ %

68

______ %

75

What percentage were:

Accidents

______ %

<1

______ %

<1

______ %

0

*

TOTAL

100 %

100 %

100 %

In 2011, what percentage were homicides?

0% - 19%

20% - 39%

40% - 59%

60% - 79%

80% - 100%

In 2011, what percentage were suicides?

0% - 19%

20% - 39%

40% - 59%

60% - 79%

80% - 100%

In 2011, what percentage were accidents?

0% - 19%

20% - 39%

40% - 59%

60% - 79%

80% - 100%

*4 cases were undetermined.** 3 cases were undetermined.

NOTE: Unless you’re in the Seattle metropolitan area, get data for your city/county/state.

Source: King County Medical Examiner

slide43

In the U.S., between 1997 and 2002, “2335 children… died in alcohol-related [automobile] crashes.”

How many (in percentage) were riding in the same vehicle with the drinking/drunk driver?

(“Child” is defined as ≤14 years of age; “alcohol-related” is defined as blood alcohol content of >0.01 g/dL.)

1,588 -- 68%

What percentage were riding in the same vehicle as the drunk driver?

0% - 19%

20% - 39%

40% - 59%

60% - 79%

80% - 100%

The majority were unrestrained.

The median BAC was .13 g/dL.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5304a2.htm

slide44

In the U.S., with the charge of felony, in what percentage of cases is the plea of insanity entered?

In less than 1% of the cases.

What percentage?

0% - 19%

20% - 39%

40% - 59%

60% - 79%

80% - 100%

25% of the pleas are successful.

15% of these are released, with most being for “minor offenses that would not have resulted in prison time anyway.”

Source: Raulin, M.L. (2003). Abnormal Psychology

slide46

Big Five Personality Traits

Add up your scores on these items

  • 8-14
  • 15-21
  • 22-28
  • 29-35
  • 36-40

Your score on

EXTRAVERSION?

slide47

Big Five Personality Traits

Add up your scores on these items:

Your score on

AGREEABLENESS?

  • 9-16
  • 17-23
  • 24-30
  • 31-37
  • 38-45
slide48

Big Five Personality Traits

Add up your scores on these items:

  • 9-16
  • 17-23
  • 24-30
  • 31-37
  • 38-45

Your score on

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS?

slide49

Big Five Personality Traits

Add up your scores on these items:

  • 8-14
  • 15-21
  • 22-28
  • 29-35
  • 35-40

Your score on

NEUROTICISM?

slide50

Big Five Personality Traits

Add up your scores on these items:

  • 10-18
  • 19-27
  • 28-36
  • 37-45
  • 46-50

Your score on

OPENNESS?

slide52

Cognitive Dissonance

    • Who enjoyed the task more?
    • A. $1 group
    • B. $20 group

Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J.M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 56(2), 276-278.

slide53

Cognitive Dissonance

    • Who was more interested in joining the sex discussion group?
    • A. Difficult task group
    • B. No task group

Aronson, E. & Mills, J. (1959). The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59(2), 177-181.

slide54

Conformity

  • Have you ever finished a test in class, then waited for someone else to turn one in?
  • Yes
  • No
slide56

Positive

  • Negative

Delusions

Catatonia

Flat affect

Hallucinations

Alogia

slide58

How many hours of sleep do you usually get a night?

  • 5 hours or less
  • 6 hours
  • 7 hours
  • 8 hours
  • 9 hours or more
slide59

I need an alarm clock in order to wake up at the appropriate time.

  • It’s a struggle for me to get out of bed in the morning.
  • Weekday mornings I hit the snooze button several times to get more sleep.
  • I feel tired, irritable, and stressed-out during the week.
  • I have trouble concentrating and remembering.
  • I feel slow with critical thinking, problem solving, and being creative.
  • I often fall asleep watching TV.
  • I often fall asleep in boring meetings or lectures or in warm rooms.
  • I often fall asleep after heavy meals or after a low dose of alcohol.
  • I often fall asleep while relaxing after dinner.
  • I often fall asleep within 5 minutes of getting into bed.
  • I often feel drowsy while driving.
  • I often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings.
  • I often need a nap to get through the day.
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

From: Maas, J. (1998). Power Sleep. New York: Villard Books.

slide60

In all of your classes this quarter, how often have you fallen asleep during class?

  • Almost every day
  • At least once a week
  • A few times
  • Once
  • Never

Thirty percent of H.S. and college students fall asleep in class at least once a week.

Maas, J. (1998). Power Sleep. New York: Villard Books.

slide61

Have you ever fallen asleep while driving?

  • Once or more a week
  • Several times
  • A few times
  • Once
  • Never

Thirty-one percent of drivers have fallen asleep at the wheel at least once in their lifetime.

Maas, J. (1998). Power Sleep. New York: Villard Books.