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Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the Web. Pedernal Jemerson G ICT Network Specialist Palawan State University. Unit 3 Computer Organization. Basic operations performed by all types of computer systems Basic organization of a computer system

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the Web

PedernalJemerson G

ICT Network Specialist

Palawan State University

@2012 by PedernalJemerson G.

jemersonpedernal@gmail.com

www.jemersonpedernal.weebly.com

unit 3 computer organization
Unit 3 Computer Organization
  • Basic operations performed by all types of computer systems
  • Basic organization of a computer system
  • Input unit and its functions
  • Output unit and its functions
  • Storage unit and its functions
  • Types of storage used in a computer system
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  • Control Unit (CU)
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Computer as a system
the five basic operations of a computer system
The Five Basic Operations of a Computer System
  • Inputting. The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system
  • Storing. Saving data and instructions to make them readily available for initial or additional processing whenever required
  • Processing. Performing arithmetic operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide, etc.) or logical operations (comparisons like equal to, less than, greater than, etc.) on data to convert them into useful information
the five basic operations of a computer system1
The Five Basic Operations of a Computer System
  • Outputting. The process of producing useful information or results for the user such as a printed report or visual display
  • Controlling. Directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed
input unit
Input Unit

An input unit of a computer system performs the following functions:

  • It accepts (or reads) instructions and data from outside world
  • It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable form
  • It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further processing
input unit cont
Input Unit (Cont.)

Examples:

Cd, web camera, mouse, keyboard, digital camera, drawing tablet, microphone, scanner, disk drive, joystick, ATM, and a barcode scanner can all be used as input devices.

output unit
Output Unit

An output unit of a computer system performs the following functions:

  • It accepts the results produced by the computer, which are in coded form and hence, cannot be easily understood by us
  • It converts these coded results to human acceptable (readable) form
  • It supplies the converted results to outside world
output unit cont
Output Unit (Cont.)

Examples

Monitor, Printer, Speaker, Disk drivers, Floppy Disk, Head phones, Projector, Plotter.

storage unit
Storage Unit

The storage unit of a computer system holds (or stores) the following :

  • Data and instructions required for processing (received from input devices)
  • Intermediate results of processing
  • Final results of processing, before they are released to an output device
storage unit cont
Storage Unit (Cont.)

Examples

Hard drives, CD, DVD, and Blu-Ray drives, Floppy drives, Zip drives, USB Flash drives, CompactFlash cards, SD cards, Tape drives, Memory Card

two types of storage
Two Types of Storage

Primary storage

  • Used to hold running program instructions
  • Used to hold data, intermediate results, and results of ongoing processing of job(s)
  • Fast in operation
  • Small Capacity
  • Expensive
  • Volatile (looses data on power dissipation)
two types of storage cont
Two Types of Storage (Cont.)

Secondary storage

  • Used to hold stored program instructions
  • Used to hold data and information of stored jobs
  • Slower than primary storage
  • Large Capacity
  • Lot cheaper that primary storage
  • Retains data even without power
arithmetic logic unit alu
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Arithmetic Logic Unit of a computer system is the place where the actual executions of instructions takes place during processing operation

control unit cu
Control Unit (CU)

Control Unit of a computer system manages and coordinates the operations of all other components of the computer system

central processing unit cpu
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • It is the brain of a computer system
  • It is responsible for controlling the operations of all other units of a computer system

+

=

Arithmetic

Logic Unit

(ALU)

Control

Unit

(CU)

Central

Processing Unit

(CPU)

slide21
CPU

Examples

the system concept
The System Concept

A system has following three characteristics:

  • A system has more than one element
  • All elements of a system are logically related
  • All elements of a system are controlled in a manner to achieve the system goal
the system concept cont
The System Concept (Cont.)

A computer is a system as it comprises of integrated components (input unit, output unit, storage unit, and CPU) that work together to perform the steps called for in the executing program

unit quiz
Unit Quiz
  • Get ¼ sheet of Yellow Paper
  • ___________ Type Quiz
  • Write the following on top of your paper
  • Do not erase you answer, erasure will be considered as wrong answer.
next unit unit 3 the internet and the world wide web
@2012 by PedernalJemerson G.Next Unit Unit 3 The Internet and the World Wide Web

Prepared by:

PedernalJemerson G

ICT Network Specialist

Palawan State University