Mathematics MattersXuJiangyongMath Education in China#MathsMatters
Achievements • China’s position in the last 10 International Mathematical Olympiad • Shanghai ranked 1st at the 2009 and 2012 PISA Tests • “Mr. Schleicher says the unpublished results reveal that pupils in other parts of China are also performing strongly.” • (China: The world's cleverest country? BBC News, May 8, 2012)
Achievements • Math and Science Education in a Global Age: What the U.S. Can Learn from China (A report prepared by the Asia Society of the USA), named the following aspects: • national standards and aligned instruction • curriculum design • rigorous and ongoing preparation of math teachers • examinations • time and academic focus
Achievements • The Shanghai Secret: its ability to execute more of these fundamentals in more of its schools more of the time: • a deep commitment to teacher training, peer-to-peer learning and constant professional development • a deep involvement of parents in their children's learning • an insistence by the school's leadership on the highest standards • a culture that prizes education and respects teachers • (The Shanghai Secret, Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, October 22, 2013)
Social Context TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study)2011 International Results in Mathematics: “IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) studies in mathematics through four cycles of TIMSS have found a strong positive relationship between students’ mathematics achievement at the fourth and eighth grades and home environments that foster learning.”
Social Context • Education is highly valued. • Math is regarded as the most important subject. • Teachers are highly respected. • The society lays a solid foundation for mathematics education in China, but the students’ motivation to learn is basically external.
Accountability • Party committees and governments at all levels are required to guarantee priority to education in local socio-economic development plans, financial arrangements, and public resource allocation. • Government officials are appointed by the Party，and school principals by the bureau of education/Party. • Merit pay for teachers. • Satisfaction measurement.
Accountability • Education in China is basically evaluation-oriented. • schools lack vitality and diversity. • “Further separating government functions from school management and detaching school governance from school operation.” • ----Outline of China’s National Plan for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)
In- Service Teacher Training • Math teachers are usually normal school /university graduates with degrees in math. • Students are taught by specialist math teachers at the very beginning of their schooling . • No less than360 hours of training in a 5-year period. • 5% of school public spending budget should be earmarked for professional development.
In- Service Teacher Training • Professional DevelopmentOrganization • The National Institute of Education Sciences (NIES) • The Institute of Educational Research and Teacher Training (IERTT) : • Educational research • Teacher training • Students’ academic achievement assessments • “Mathematics Education Researchers”
In- Service Teacher Training • District/County Based Training • textbook analysis • students’ academic achievement analysis • teaching competitions • classroom observations • workshops • seminars • experiments and researches
In- Service Teacher Training • School Based Training • prepare lessons together • observe colleagues teach • mentoring
In- Service Teacher Training The characteristics of high-quality professional development: •offered for a longer duration and greater frequency • involves teachers directly for more hours in active, engaged learning activities and environments • focused on a particular content area, such as geometry or astrophysics, and allows teachers to gain
In- Service Teacher Training knowledge on how to teach the content to their students • coherent to teachers’ needs and circumstances • involves teachers learning from their peers through collective participation (Laura Desimone, Current Models for Evaluating Effectiveness of Teacher Professional Development, Recommendations to State Leaders from Leading Experts, Summary Report of a CCSSO Conference, 2008, the Council of Chief State School Officers)
New Challenges & Opportunities • Curriculum Reform • “Two Basics”: basic knowledge and basic skills. • “Four Objectives”: basic knowledge, basic skills, basic thinking methods, and basic activity experiences. • Education stakeholders must reach a consensus on the definition of good mathematics education.
New Challenges & Opportunities Equity:Balanced Development of Compulsory Education Outline of China’s National Plan for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development(2010-2020): “Run every school well, and bring the best possible education to every student. ” Opinions on Further Enhancing the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education (State Council, 2012): Education in 65% of all counties will be basically balanced by 2015, and 95% by 2020.